||Дата: Четверг, 15.09.2016, 10:40 | Сообщение # 1|
|How to cure hangover|
You should be aware of the hangover
A hangover is the experience of various unpleasant physiological and psychological effects following the consumption of ethanol, as found in wine, beer and distilled spirits. Hangovers can last for several hours or for more than 24 hours. Typical symptoms of a hangover may include headache, drowsiness, concentration problems, dry mouth, dizziness, fatigue, gastrointestinal distress (e.g., vomiting), absence of hunger, sweating, nausea, hyper-excitability and anxiety.
While the causes of a hangover are still poorly understood, several factors are known to be involved including acetaldehyde accumulation, changes in the immune system and glucose metabolism, dehydration, metabolic acidosis, disturbed prostaglandin synthesis, increased cardiac output, vasodilation, sleep deprivation and malnutrition. Beverage-specific effects of additives or by-products such as congeners in alcoholic beverages also play an important role. The symptoms occur typically after the intoxicating effect of the alcohol begins to wear off, generally the morning after a night of heavy drinking.
Though many possible remedies and "folk cures" have been suggested, there is no compelling evidence to suggest that any are effective for preventing or treating alcohol hangover. Avoiding alcohol or drinking in moderation are the most effective ways to avoid a hangover. The socioeconomic consequences and health risks of alcohol hangover include workplace absenteeism, impaired job performance, reduced productivity and poor academic achievement. A hangover may also compromise potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery.
H2O is a must to cure a hangover. As you likely know from the frequent trips to the bathroom during a night of debauchery, alcohol is a diuretic and can cause dehydration. Before falling into bed, down 16 to 20 ounces of water, says Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D., a consultant in addiction psychiatry at the Mayo Clinic. And the next time you go out, he recommends ordering a glass of water with every beer—and alternate between the two to replace lost fluids as you go. (Did you know it's also possible to drink too much water? Find out: Are You Drinking Too Much Water?)
Eat Up and Drink Water
Don’t wait until the end of the night to polish off a pizza. It might be too late.
"The alcohol is already in your body, so eating food or drinking water won’t affect how it’s absorbed," says Aaron White, PhD, senior advisor to the director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.
But if you eat a meal and have water while you're throwing back those cocktails, your hangover may not be as bad. "Having food in your stomach while drinking reduces how high your peak blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) gets by about a third," White says.
The less drunk you get, the less crummy you’ll feel the next day. And fluid from water slows the rate at which your body absorbs alcohol. This will also lower your overall BAC.
"It’s a good idea to alternate alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks," White says.
Along with drinking water throughout the night, be sure to down even more before you go to sleep.
"Alcohol is a diuretic," Koob says. This means it makes you pee a lot, which causes you to lose a lot of liquid. "Hangover symptoms are partly due to dehydration, so replacing that fluid loss can help."
It’s also smart to keep a bottle of water by your bedside so you can hydrate as soon as you wake up in the morning.
"Even though the diuretic effect of alcohol may cause the body to lose some electrolytes, it's not so much that you need to replace them right away," says Samir Zakhari, Ph.D., director of the Division of Metabolism and Health Effects at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. And research has shown Gatorade is no better for a hangover than water from your tap, so save your money.
Chose Clear Booze
The color of the spirits you drink may affect how you feel tomorrow. You may be better off sticking to a clear booze like vodka and gin, or the clear versions of rum and tequila.
The reason has to do with chemical compounds called congeners. Those are "anything in alcohol besides alcohol and water," Koob says. Darker drinks like bourbon, scotch, and tequila tend to have higher levels. Those compounds can bring on the inflammation that makes your hangover worse.
Lots of people—hungover or not—use a cup of joe to wake up and feel alert at work. But a trip to Starbucks won't give you lasting benefits, and caffeine can both treat and cause headaches and migraines, so this one is a personal preference. If you do down a cup to cure a hangover, be sure to drink water, too, since studies suggest caffeine causes dehydration. Here's How to Brew the Best Coffee At Home.
Have a Drink the Next Day
If you're looking for a short-term fix, this may help -- but not for long. There’s a scientific explanation for why the "hair of the dog that bit you" works.
When you drink, alcohol holds back a brain chemical called glutamate. That causes your brain to make more and more of it, Koob says. When the alcohol wears off, you have a bunch of it floating around in your brain. It may be to blame for hangover symptoms like irritability, headaches, nausea, and fatigue.
Down another drink or two the next morning, and you’ll hold off the glutamate all over again. Your hangover symptoms may improve. But it won't last. "Once you stop drinking you’ll still have to deal with a hangover," Koob says.
Treat Your Symptoms
Although there’s no cure for a hangover, there are ways to treat what ails you.
If you have a headache, reach for an anti-inflammatory medication like ibuprofen. Upset stomach? Pepto-Bismol might help. If you’re tired, have some coffee.
One thing you shouldn’t take is any other medication that has the ingredient acetaminophen. It can cause serious liver problems when it mixes with alcohol.
While ibuprofen is a better option, you still need to be careful. "Taking too much ibuprofen can upset your stomach, and it may already be queasy from your hangover," Koob says.
MORE ALCOHOL ("HAIR OF THE DOG")
"Bad idea," Dr. Hall-Flavin says. "It will provide a numbing effect, but all you're doing is prolonging the inevitable, and it will likely make your headache worse." Another reason to avoid cracking open a cold one to cure a hangover: Experts agree that if you use this "cure," the risk of abuse increases and could lead to alcohol dependency.
What you eat after drinking doesn't matter—it's what you eat before all those Jagerbombs that can help lessen the hangover the next day. Food helps slow the absorption of alcohol, and the longer it takes the alcohol to reach your blood stream, the longer it is until you become intoxicated. Need suggestions for your hungover trip to Denny's?
Ease a pounding head with a pill (or two, depending on the recommended dosage), but stick to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen), not acetaminophen (Tylenol): "While it's OK for a headache, when combined with a liver that's working overtime to metabolize alcohol, it can cause liver damage or be deadly," says Dena Davidson, Ph.D., former associate professor of psychiatry at Indiana University School of Medicine.
If you normally take a multi, go ahead, but no studies have found that any particular vitamins do anything to cure a hangover. And one night of intoxication isn't enough to throw off the levels of nutrients in your body to the point where you need to worry.
One drink—a 12-ounce beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of hard liquor—is metabolized by your body in about an hour, so the whole "sweat it out" theory to cure a hangover is myth. At the same time, the endorphin release could boost your mood. And burning off a few calories may ease your guilt about how much you drank. Just be sure you keep your water bottle handy so you don't become even more dehydrated.
"There is no research that shows that sex will make a hangover go away, but maybe it will make the time go faster," says Joris C. Verster, Ph.D., assistant professor at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. "If it makes you happy, go for it."
THE BEST CURE: PREVENTION
You're a grown man, you know to drink responsibly. But just in case you forgot: Limit your drinks to about one every hour. Your body metabolizes each beer (or wine or shot) in about 60 to 75 minutes, Dr. Hall-Flavin says. Drink faster, and your blood alcohol level rises faster and you risk a hangover. Eat before you drink and follow Dr. Hall-Flavin's "I'll have a beer and a glass of water" rule when ordering—and drink the water, don't let it just sit on the table.
And how's this for sobering: In research, “moderate drinking” by a man is defined as two drinks a day. More than five in one sitting is considered "heavy drinking." So think before you order that extra round.