||Дата: Вторник, 14.03.2017, 14:23 | Сообщение # 1|
|January 1 - New Year|
How to celebrate the New Year in Russia
New Year is a holiday coming at the moment of transition from the last day of the year to the first day of the next year. It is celebrated by many peoples in accordance with the adopted calendar. The beginning of the year from January 1 was established by the Roman ruler Julius Caesar in 46 BC. In ancient Rome, this day was dedicated to Janus - the god of choice, doors and all beginnings. The month of January received its name in honor of the god Janus, who was portrayed with two faces: one looked forward, and the other - back.
Russian New Year
The history of the appearance of the new year
Until the 15th century, in Russia, the new year did not begin from January, as now, but from March 1 (as in the Republican ancient Rome) (in some varieties of the calendar around this number, possibly in the coming full moon), or from September 1 as in Byzantium , According to the Julian calendar.
Since 1492, the official date for the New Year is September 1, according to the church calendar.
Information about the celebration of the New Year appears from the end of the XV century. "The Parisian Dictionary of Muscovites" (XVI century) retained the Russian name of the New Year's holiday: The first day of the year.
Since 1700 by the decree of Peter I the New Year in Russia began to be celebrated, as in other European countries, on January 1 (but, unlike the European countries, according to the Julian calendar).
The law of June 2, 1897 "On the duration and distribution of working hours in the establishments of the factory and mining industry" on January 1 became a non-working day. Since 1919, the New Year holiday in Russia began to celebrate in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. From 1930 to 1947, January 1 in the USSR was an ordinary working day. December 23, 1947 decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on January 1 became a holiday and a day off. Under the law of September 25, 1992 in the Russian Federation also on January 2 it was a day off.
Since 2013, according to amendments to Article 112 of the Customs Code of the Russian Federation of 23.04.2012, 6 and 8 January were added to the New Year holidays.
The New Year's Eve is a very significant holiday in many countries. And it is accompanied by a variety of entertainment, feast, folk festivals. According to tradition, a Christmas tree is installed in the house. In many countries it is put on Christmas Day and is called a Christmas tree. A Christmas tree is decorated and decorated with a variety of toys.
New Year's table
At the New Year's Eve, relatives gather at the table. Prepare different dishes: olivier, herring under the fur coat, ham, cabbage rolls, dumplings and much more.
In the New Year celebration version, the people gathered at first "escort" the old year - remember what it was remembered or what it was. At 0:00 0 minutes 00 seconds on January 1, the chimes are chiming. With the beginning of the chime of chimes (chime lasts 20 seconds, then start chiming), which marks the arrival of the new year, it is customary to make a wish. It is also customary to give presents in the New Year.
Santa Claus is a fairy-tale character of the East Slavic urban folklore, the personification of winter frosts, a blacksmith who fetters water. Collective image of Santa Claus is based on the hagiography of St. Nicholas, as well as Slavic ideas about Frost.
In the New Year comes Santa Claus and gives children gifts that he brings in a bag behind his back. Often depicted in a blue, silvery or red coat, embroidered patterns, in a hat (and not in a cap), with a long white beard and a staff in his hand, in felt boots. He goes on a triple horse, on skis or moves on foot.
New Year's Address of the Head of State
In many countries, a few minutes before the new year (in Russia, as a rule, at 23:55 on December 31), the heads of state address their peoples with a speech in which they usually sum up some of the results of the past year and wish good luck to citizens in the new year. Appeal is broadcast by the media.
In the USSR and Russia, the tradition of such appeals begins with Leonid Brezhnev's speech before the New 1970s. It was not without incident. So, on December 31, 1991, satirist Mikhail Zadornov appeared in front of the audience instead of the head of state. Another example is the double appeal on December 31, 1999 of the Russian president and the acting president. The first was Boris Yeltsin's appeal, in which he announced his resignation, and before the midnight with the coming New Year TV viewers were congratulated by V. Putin.
After the appeal of the head of state, the media broadcast at exactly midnight the exact time signal (in Russia it is the battle of the Kremlin chiming clock), marking the beginning of the new year (the new year comes with the beginning of the chime, 20 seconds before one stroke of the chimes). As a rule, after the national anthem of the country is performed.
Further entertainment TV shows, for example "Blue Light", filmed for a few weeks or months before the New Year.
Most countries celebrate the New Year on January 1, the first day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. New Year celebrations taking into account the time of the day always begin in the Pacific Ocean on the islands of Kiribati. The last to see off the old year is the inhabitants of the islands of Midway in the Pacific Ocean. Some countries celebrate the New Year according to the lunar calendar.
Jewish New Year
The Jewish holiday of Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew ראש השנה) - (the head of the year) is celebrated 163 days after Pesach (not earlier than September 5 and not later than October 5). This day begins a ten-day period of spiritual self-absorption and repentance. The next 10 days before the day of judgment (Yom Kippur) are called "days of teshuvah" ("return") - referring to the return to God. They are also called "days of remorse" or "days of trembling." It is believed that Rosh Hashanah decides the fate of a person for a year ahead. In the subsequent Judgment Day after the holiday, Jews greet each other with a wish: "May you be written down and signed for a good year in the Book of Life!". Believers dress in light clothes. During the festive meal, it is common to dip a halo or an apple in honey.
Traditional Chinese New Year is timed to the winter new moon after the complete lunar cycle, which took place after the winter solstice (that is, on the second new moon after December 21). In the Gregorian calendar this corresponds to one of the days between January 21 and February 21.
In the north of the country for the New Year (Tet) in the house set a flowering branch of a peach, or decorate the house with mandarin trees, hung with orange fruits, symbolizing prosperity. During this period, peach and apricot trees, mandarins and almonds are blossoming. Young flowering branches and just bouquets of flowers are decorated with streets.
In the south of the country, Tet prefer to decorate his house with a flowering apricot branch, and the flowers of the apricot should have five petals. In addition, southerners put watermelons on the altar, the red sweet pulp of which symbolizes good luck in the coming year.
In the evening, on New Year's Eve, there are mass dragon dances, in which all people take part, regardless of prosperity. The most magnificent processions and bright events are held at night. With the onset of twilight, bonfires are raised in parks, gardens or on the streets. Every fire gathers several families.
The Vietnamese New Year coincides with the Chinese one, with rare exceptions. In preparation for the holiday, Tet cook special culinary specialties and do the cleaning in their house. There are many events that are traditionally held during the Tet celebration, such as the first way out of the house on the first day of the new year, the recollection of their ancestors, wishes and New Year's greetings, donations of coins and small bills to children and the elderly, holiday trade. Tet is considered to be the first day of spring, so the holiday is often called "The Feast of Spring" (Vietnamese Hội xuân)
The Iranians and those who use the Iranian calendar in their daily life celebrate the New Year (Novruz, the "new day") on March 21 or 22 (night from 30 esfanda to 1 farwardina), on the day of the spring equinox.
April 14 - Bengali New Year (Bangladesh).
In Kazakhstan, the new year is celebrated on the night of January 1.
New Year is one of the most popular holidays in Kazakhstan. His popularity is comparable to the celebration of Christmas in the West.
The New Year celebration is traditionally celebrated on the evening of December 31. In the cities and villages there are mass festivities around the dressed tree in the compulsory accompaniment of Santa Claus and Snow Maiden. Sometimes Santa Claus is called Ayaz Ata, which is literally translated "Santa Claus". In ancient times, the Kazakhs did not have Father Frost, the elder Kydyr-Baba believed that on the night before the vernal equinox he walked around the earth and planted new plants.
On the eve of the New Year, by tradition, the head of state addresses with congratulations to the people of Kazakhstan. Under the battle of the clock everyone congratulates each other on the coming New Year, wishing new successes and victories in the coming year.
Also in Kazakhstan Nauryz holiday is popular, that from ancient Iran can be translated as "a new day". Nauryz is celebrated on March 22, the day of the vernal equinox.
Traditionally, popular folk celebrations are organized in Nauryz, in many families they prepare the traditional dish Nauryz-kozhe, consisting of seven components symbolizing fertility and well-being: water, salt, milk, grain of cereals and so on. In the old days on this day it was customary to visit relatives and friends, share news, start new joint activities and forget all resentment towards others. And also in antiquity these days the wars stopped and it happened that the battle that broke out could end and the two fought countries could celebrate the holiday without any disagreement.
Festive entertainments were various games, horse races, swings "Altybakan" (six pillars).
In Kazakhstan, the New Year (January 1) and Nauryz Meiramy (March 22) are celebrated. Accordingly, 1-2 January and 21-23 March are non-working.
Now in Kyrgyzstan, as in many countries, the New Year is celebrated on January 1 according to the Gregorian calendar. This holiday came to the country after entering the Russian Empire along with the Russian settlers, and was developed during the Soviet era. Now the New Year is one of the most celebrated holidays in Kyrgyzstan. About a week before December 31 begin to actively make preparations for the New Year. In the preschool, secondary and other educational institutions, there are traditional matinees and Christmas trees dedicated to this holiday. New Year's corporate parties are held in state and private organizations and enterprises. Grandfather Frost in Kirghiz - Ayaz-ata, Snegurochka - Ayaz-kyz. The holiday of Orthodox Christmas is also included in the list of official holidays, January 1-7 are non-working days. As in some CIS countries, the night from January 13 to January 14 (from December 31 to January 1, according to the Julian calendar) is unofficially celebrated as the Old New Year. This New Year holidays are completely over.
The Kirghiz, like other Central Asian nations, also celebrate the coming of the new year on March 21 on the day of the vernal equinox. The moment of the coming of the new year is the sunrise on this day. This holiday is called Nooruz Mayrama. On this holiday, folk festivities take place, national dishes are prepared, families gather and organize contests, national sports, dancing, music.
At a time when Tajikistan was one of the republics of the USSR, the celebration of the New Year was the same as everywhere in the country. But nevertheless, even in the USSR the people also celebrated the day of the spring equinox "Navruz". With the gaining of independence in Tajikistan, they began to celebrate both the New Year holidays according to the Gregorian calendar, as well as Navruz. By this day, "sumalak" or "sumanak" from sprouted wheat grains is brewed, special breads are cooked and festive dishes are prepared. Congratulate you with "Go back to town" and say: "Rzi nov Muborak!", "Navrӯz Muborak!" (In the literal translation - "Congratulations on a new day!").