||Дата: Среда, 15.03.2017, 07:22 | Сообщение # 1|
|February 2 - Day of the defeat by the Soviet troops of German fascist troops in the Battle of Stalingrad (1943)|
The Battle of Stalingrad (July 17, 1942 - February 2, 1943) - a major battle between Soviet troops and the forces of the Axis countries, which unfolded in the city of Stalingrad, as well as in the interfluve of the Don and Volga during the Great Patriotic War. The battle ended with the victory of the Red Army and the defeat of the German troops and their allies.
It is the largest land battle in the history of mankind, along with the battle on the Kursk Bulge has become a turning point in the course of hostilities, after which the German troops and their allies finally lost their strategic initiative. The battle included an attempt by the Wehrmacht to seize the right bank of the Volga in the Stalingrad area and the city itself, its confrontation with the Red Army in the city and counterattack of the enemy (Operation Uranus), which resulted in the 6th Army and other Allied forces of Nazi Germany inside and near the city Were surrounded and partially destroyed, many were captured or died of frostbite.
According to rough estimates, the total losses in the battle for Stalingrad are more than two million people. The Axis countries and their allies suffered colossal losses, were weakened after the battle and could no longer regain their former might. The battle began the counteroffensive of the Soviet forces and became one of the most important turning points of the Second World War. Following him followed the operations of the Red Army in Western Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other regions of Eastern Europe, as well as the final victory in the battle for Berlin.
June 22, 1941, Germany and its allies invaded the territory of the Soviet Union, quickly moving deeper. Defeated in the course of the battles in the summer-autumn of 1941, the Soviet troops switched to a counter-offensive during the battle for Moscow in December 1941. The German troops, exhausted by the stubborn resistance of the defenders of Moscow, not ready for the winter campaign, having a vast and not completely controlled rear, were stopped on the outskirts of the city and, during the counter-offensive of the Red Army, were thrown back to 150-300 km to the west.
In the winter of 1941-1942 the Soviet-German front stabilized. The plans for a new offensive against Moscow were rejected by Adolf Hitler, despite the fact that the German generals insisted on this option. However, Hitler believed that the offensive against Moscow would be too predictable. For these reasons, the German command considered plans for new operations in the north and south. An offensive to the south of the USSR would provide control over the oil fields of the Caucasus (the region of Grozny and Baku), and over the Volga River, the main artery that connected the European part of the country with Transcaucasia and Central Asia. The victory of Germany in the south of the Soviet Union could seriously shake Soviet industry.
The Soviet leadership, encouraged by the successes near Moscow, tried to intercept the strategic initiative and in May 1942 sent large forces into the offensive Kharkov region. The offensive began from the Barvenkovskiy protrusion to the south of the city, which was formed as a result of the winter offensive of the South-Western Front. A special feature of this offensive was the use of a new Soviet mobile formation - the tank corps, which in terms of the number of tanks and artillery roughly corresponded to the German Panzer Division, but was considerably inferior to it in terms of the number of motorized infantry. The Axis forces, meanwhile, planned an operation to surround the Barvenkovskiy protrusion.
The offensive of the Red Army was so unexpected for the Wehrmacht, which almost ended in a catastrophe for Army Group South. However, they decided not to change plans and, thanks to the concentration of troops on the flanks of the ledge, broke through the defense of enemy troops. Most of the South-Western Front was surrounded. In the subsequent three-week battles, better known as the "second battle for Kharkov," the advancing parts of the Red Army suffered a severe defeat. According to German data, only more than 240 thousand people were captured, according to Soviet archival data, the irrecoverable losses of the Red Army comprised 170,958 people, and a large number of heavy weapons were lost during the operation. After the defeat near Kharkov, the front south of Voronezh was practically opened. As a result, the German troops were opened the way to Rostov-on-Don and the lands of the Caucasus. The city of November 1941, the Red Army retained with great losses, but now it was lost.
After the Kharkov catastrophe of the Red Army in May 1942, Hitler intervened in strategic planning, ordering the Army Group "South" to split into two. Army Group "A" was to continue the offensive to the North Caucasus. Army Group "B", including the 6th Army of Friedrich Paulus and the 4th Panzer Army of G. Goth, was to move east towards the Volga and Stalingrad.
Mastering Stalingrad was very important for Hitler for several reasons. One of the main ones was that Stalingrad is a large industrial city on the bank of the Volga, along which strategically important routes that connected the Center of Russia with the southern regions of the USSR, including the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, ran. Thus, the seizure of Stalingrad would allow Germany to cut vital water and land communications for the USSR, securely cover the left flank of the forces advancing in the Caucasus and create serious problems with supplying the units of the Red Army that resisted them. Finally, the very fact that the city bore the name of Stalin - Hitler's main enemy - made the conquest of the city a victory in terms of ideology and inspiration of the soldiers, as well as the people of the Reich.
All major Wehrmacht operations were usually given a color code: Fall Rot (red version) - operation to capture France, Fall Gelb (yellow version) - operation to capture Belgium and the Netherlands, Fall Grün (green variant) - Czechoslovakia, etc. Summer Offensive Wehrmacht in the USSR was given the code name "Fall Blau" (blue version).
Operation "blue variant" began with the offensive of Army Group "South" on the troops of the Bryansk Front to the north and the troops of the South-Western Front south of Voronezh. It involved the 6th and 17th armies of the Wehrmacht, as well as the 1st and 4th Panzer Armies.
It should be noted that despite a two-month break in active combat operations, for the troops of the Bryansk Front the result turned out to be no less catastrophic than for the troops of the Southwest that were fought by the fighting in May. On the very first day of the operation, both Soviet fronts broke through tens of kilometers into the depths, and the enemy rushed to the Don. The Red Army in the vast desert steppes could be opposed only by small forces, and then a chaotic retreat of forces to the east began altogether. They ended in complete failure and attempts to re-form the defense when the German units reached the Soviet defensive positions from the flank. In mid-July, several divisions of the Red Army fell into the cauldron in the south of the Voronezh region, near the town of Millerovo in the north of the Rostov region.
One of the important factors that thwarted the plans of the Germans was the failure of the offensive operation on Voronezh. Having easily seized the right-bank part of the city, the Wehrmacht could not develop success, and the front line leveled along the Voronezh River. The left bank remained behind the Soviet troops, and repeated attempts by the Germans to knock out the Red Army from the left bank failed. The Axis troops exhausted the resources for the continuation of offensive operations, and the fighting for Voronezh moved into the positional phase. Due to the fact that the main forces were sent to Stalingrad, the offensive to Voronezh was suspended, and the most combat-capable units from the front were withdrawn and transferred to the 6th Army of Paulus. Subsequently, this factor played an important role in the defeat of the German troops at Stalingrad.
After the capture of Rostov-on-Don, Hitler transferred the 4th tank army from group A (advancing to the Caucasus) to group "B", aimed east toward the Volga and Stalingrad. The initial offensive of the 6th Army was so successful that Hitler intervened again, ordering the 4th Panzer Army to join Army Group "South" (A). As a result, a huge "traffic jam" was formed, when the 4th and 6th Armies took several roads in the zone of operations. Both armies were firmly stuck, and the delay turned out to be quite long and slowed the Germans offensive for one week. With a delayed offensive, Hitler changed his mind and reassigned the target of the Fourth Tank Army back to the Caucasus.
Army Group "B". For the offensive against Stalingrad, the Sixth Army (commander F.Paulus) was singled out. It included 13 divisions, in which there were about 270 thousand people, 3 thousand guns and mortars, and about 700 tanks. The reconnaissance activity in the interests of the 6th Army was conducted by the Abwergroup-104.
The army was supported by the 4th Air Fleet (commanded by Colonel-General Wolfram von Richthofen), which had up to 1,200 aircraft (fighter aircraft aimed at Stalingrad, in the initial stage of the battle for this city there were about 120 Messerschmitt fighter planes Bf.109F- 4 / G-2 (Soviet and Russian sources give figures ranging from 100 to 150), plus about 40 obsolete Romanian Bf.109E-3).
The Stalingrad Front (commander - SK Timoshenko, since July 23 - VN Gordov, since August 13 - Colonel-General AI Eremenko). It included the garrison of Stalingrad (the 10th NKVD Division), the 62nd, 63rd, 64th, 21st, 28th, 38th and 57th combined arms armies, the 8th Air Army (Soviet Fighter aircraft at the beginning of the battle there were 230-240 fighters, mostly Yak-1) and the Volga Military Flotilla-37 divisions, 3 tank corps, 22 brigades, which numbered 547,000 men, 2,200 guns and mortars, about 400 tanks, 454 aircraft, 150-200 long-range aviation bombers and 60 air defense fighters.
July 12, the Stalingrad Front was created, the commander - Marshal Timoshenko, since July 23 - Lieutenant-General Gordov. It included the 62nd Army advanced from the reserve, under the command of Major-General Kolpakchi, 63, the 64th Army, as well as the 21st, 28th, 38th, 57th Combined-Arms and 8th Air Armies of the former South-Western Front. July 30 - the 51st Army of the North Caucasian Front. The Stalingrad Front received the task of defending itself in a 530 km wide belt (along the river Don from Babka 250 km northwest of Serafimovich to Kletskaya and further along the Kletskaya, Surovikino, Suvorovsky, Verkhnekurmoyarskaya lines), stop further advance of the enemy and prevent its access to the Volga . By July 17, the Stalingrad Front had 12 divisions (total 160,000 men), 2,200 artillery pieces and mortars, about 400 tanks and more than 450 aircraft. In addition, 150-200 bombers of long-range aviation and up to 60 fighters of the 102nd Air Defense Division (Colonel II Krasniurchenko) operated in its strip. Thus, by the beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad, the enemy had superiority over Soviet troops in tanks and artillery - in 1.3 and in aircraft - more than 2 times, and in people second inferior.
The beginning of the battle
In July, when German intentions became absolutely clear to the Soviet command, it developed plans for the defense of Stalingrad. In order to create a new front of defense, the Soviet troops, after moving out of the depths, had to take positions on the terrain where there were no prepared defensive lines. Most of the units of the Stalingrad Front were new formations that had not yet been properly assembled and, as a rule, had no combat experience. There was an acute shortage of fighter aircraft, anti-tank and antiaircraft artillery. Many divisions lacked ammunition and motor vehicles.
It is considered the common date of the beginning of the battle on July 17. However, Aleksei Isaev found in the journal of the fighting of the 62nd Army data on the first two clashes that occurred on July 16. The forward detachment of the 147th Infantry Division at 17:40 was fired at the Morozov farm by anti-tank guns of the enemy and destroyed them with retaliatory fire. Soon a more serious collision occurred:
"At 20:00 four German tanks secretly approached the Golden Farm and opened fire on the detachment. The first battle of the Battle of Stalingrad lasted 20-30 minutes. Tankers of the 645th Tank Battalion said that 2 German tanks, 1 anti-tank gun and 1 other tank were destroyed. Apparently, the Germans did not expect to collide immediately with two companies of tanks and sent forward only four cars. Losses of the detachment were one T-34 burned and two T-34 padded. The first battle of the bloody multi-month battle was not marked by anyone's death - the human losses of two tank mouths amounted to 11 people wounded. Dragging behind him two podbityh tank, the detachment returned back. "
- Isaev A.V. Stalingrad. There is no land for us beyond the Volga. - Moscow: Yauza, Eksmo, 2008. - 448 p. - ISBN 978-5-699-26236-6.
July 17 at the turn of the rivers Chir and Tsimla, the advance detachments of the 62nd and 64th armies of the Stalingrad Front met with the vanguards of the 6th German Army. Interacting with the aircraft of the 8th Air Army (Major-General of the Air Force TT Khryukin), they had stubborn resistance to the enemy, who, in order to break their resistance, had to deploy 5 divisions out of 13 and spend 5 days fighting them. In the end, the German troops shot down the advance detachments from their positions and approached the main line of defense of the troops of the Stalingrad Front. Resistance of the Soviet troops forced the Nazi command to strengthen the 6th Army. By July 22, it already had 18 divisions, numbering 250,000 men of combat strength, about 740 tanks, 7,500 guns and mortars. Troops of the 6th Army supported up to 1200 aircraft. As a result, the balance of power increased even more in favor of the enemy. For example, in tanks he now had a double superiority. The troops of the Stalingrad Front had 16 divisions by July 22 (187,000 men, 360 tanks, 7,900 guns and mortars, and about 340 aircraft).
At dawn on July 23, the northern, and July 25 and southern strike groups of the enemy crossed the offensive. Using superiority in the forces and air supremacy in the air, the Germans broke through the defense on the right flank of the 62nd Army and by the end of the day on July 24 they came to the Don in the Golubinsky area. As a result, up to three Soviet divisions were surrounded. The enemy also managed to squeeze the troops of the right flank of the 64th Army. A critical situation developed for the troops of the Stalingrad Front. Both flanks of the 62nd Army were deeply embraced by the enemy, and his exit to the Don created a real threat of the Nazi troops breaking through to Stalingrad.
By the end of July, the Germans had pushed the Soviet troops beyond the Don. The line of defense stretches for hundreds of kilometers from north to south along the Don. To break through the defenses along the river, the Germans had to use, in addition to their 2nd Army, the armies of their Italian, Hungarian and Romanian allies. The 6th Army was only a few dozen kilometers from Stalingrad, and the 4th Panzer Army, south of it, turned north to help take the city. South of the Army Group "South" (A) continued to go deeper into the Caucasus, but its offensive slowed. Army Group "South" A was too far to the south and could not provide support to Army Group "South" B in the north.
On July 28, 1942, the People's Commissar of Defense JV Stalin addressed the Red Army with Order No. 227, in which he demanded greater resistance and at all costs to stop the enemy's offensive. The most severe measures were envisaged for those who displayed cowardice and cowardice in battle. Practical measures were planned to strengthen morale and fighting spirit and discipline in the troops. "It's time to end the retreat," the order said. "Not a step back!" This slogan embodied the essence of Order No. 227. The commanders and political workers were tasked to bring to the consciousness of every soldier the demands of this order.
Stubborn resistance of Soviet troops forced the Nazi command on July 31 to turn from the Caucasian direction to Stalingrad 4th Panzer Army (Colonel-General G. Goth). On August 2, its advanced units approached Kotelnikovsky. In this regard, there was a direct threat of a breakthrough of the enemy to the city from the south-west. The fighting unfolded on the south-western approaches to it. To strengthen the defense of Stalingrad, the 57th Army was deployed by the decision of the front commander on the southern front of the external defensive line. The 51st Army was transferred to the Stalingrad Front (Major-General TK Kolomiets, since October 7 - Major-General N. I. Trufanov).
The situation in the zone of the 62nd Army was difficult. August 7-9, the enemy pushed her troops behind the Don River, and four divisions surrounded west of Kalach. Soviet soldiers fought in the encirclement until August 14, and then small groups began to break out of encirclement. Approached from the Stavka Reserve, three divisions of the 1st Guards Army (Major-General KS Moskalenko, from September 28 - Major-General IM Chistyakov) inflicted a counterattack on enemy troops and stopped their further advance.
Thus, the plan of the Germans - with a swift blow to break through to Stalingrad - was foiled by the stubborn resistance of the Soviet troops in the great bend of the Don and their active defense on the south-western approaches to the city. During the three weeks of the offensive, the enemy was able to advance only 60-80 km. Based on the assessment of the situation, the Nazi command made significant adjustments to its plan.
On August 19, the Nazi troops resumed the offensive, striking in the general direction at Stalingrad. On August 22, the 6th German army forced the Don and captured on its eastern shore, in the Peskovatka area, a bridgehead 45 km wide, on which six divisions were concentrated. August 23, the 14th Panzer Corps of the enemy broke through to the Volga north of Stalingrad, near the town of Rynok, and cut off the 62nd Army from the rest of the forces of the Stalingrad Front. On the eve of the enemy aircraft dealt a massive blow to Stalingrad from the air, having committed about 2 thousand airplanes. As a result, the city suffered terrible destruction - entire neighborhoods were turned into ruins or simply erased from the face of the earth.
On September 13, the enemy launched an offensive along the whole front, trying to capture Stalingrad by storm. It was not possible to restrain its powerful onslaught of the Soviet troops. They were forced to retreat into the city, in the streets of which fierce battles began.
At the end of August and September, Soviet troops conducted a series of counterblows in the south-west direction to cut off the formations of the 14th Panzer Corps of the enemy that had broken through to the Volga. When counterstrikes were applied, the Soviet troops were to close the Germans' breakthrough in the sector of the station Kotluban and Rossoshka and liquidate the so-called "land bridge". At the cost of huge losses, Soviet troops managed to advance only a few kilometers.
"In the tank formations of the 1st Guards Army of the 340 tanks that were available for the beginning of the offensive on September 18, by September 20, there were only 183 serviceable tanks, taking into account the replenishment."
- Zharkoy F.MM Tank march. - SPb .: Izd. 4 th: MVAA, 2012.
Battle in the city
By August 23, 1942, about 100,000 of the 400,000 residents of Stalingrad were evacuated. August 24, the City Committee of Defense of Stalingrad adopted a belated decision on the evacuation of women, children and the wounded to the left bank of the Volga. All citizens, including women and children, worked on the construction of trenches and other fortifications.
August 23, the forces of the 4th Air Fleet produced the longest and most destructive bombing of the city. German aviation destroyed the city, killed more than 90 thousand people, destroyed more than half of the housing stock of pre-war Stalingrad, thereby turning the city into a huge territory, covered with burning ruins. The situation was aggravated by the fact that after high-explosive bombs German bombers dropped incendiary bombs. A huge fiery whirlwind was formed, which burnt down the central part of the city and all its inhabitants. The fire spread to the rest of Stalingrad, as most buildings in the city were built of wood or had wooden elements. Temperature in many parts of the city, especially in its center, reached up to 1000 C. Similar will then be repeated in Hamburg, Dresden and Tokyo.
At 16 hours on August 23, 1942, the shock grouping of the 6th German Army broke through to the Volga near the northern outskirts of Stalingrad, in the area of Latoshinka, Akotka, and Rynok.
In the northern part of the city, near the village of Gumrak, the German 14th Panzer Corps met resistance from Soviet anti-aircraft batteries of the 1077th regiment of Lieutenant-Colonel V. S. Herman, whose guns included girls. The battle lasted until the evening of August 23rd. By the evening of August 23, 1942, German tanks appeared in the area of the tractor factory, 1-1.5 km from the factory shops, and began its shelling. At this stage, the Soviet defense relied heavily on the 10th NKVD infantry division and the people's volunteer corps, recruited from workers, firemen, and policemen. At the tractor plant tanks continued to be built, which were manned by crews consisting of factory workers and immediately sent off from the conveyors into battle. AS Chuyanov told the members of the film crew of the documentary "Pages of the Battle of Stalingrad" that when the enemy went to the Wet Mecheta before the organization of the line of defense of Stalingrad, he was frightened away by Soviet tanks that left the gates of the tractor plant, and only drivers were sitting in them This factory without ammunition and crew. The tank brigade of the Stalingrad proletariat on August 23 moved to the defense line north of the tractor plant in the area of the Sukhaya Mechetka River. For about a week militiamen took an active part in defensive battles in the north of Stalingrad. Then gradually they began to be replaced by personnel units.
By September 1, 1942, the Soviet command could provide its troops in Stalingrad with only risky fords across the Volga. In the midst of the ruins of the already destroyed city, the Soviet 62nd Army built defensive positions with located fire points in buildings and factories. Snipers and assault groups as they could detain the enemy. The Germans, advancing deep into Stalingrad, suffered heavy losses. Soviet reinforcements crossed the Volga from the eastern shore under constant bombardment and artillery shelling.
From 13 to 26 September, parts of the Wehrmacht pressed the troops of the 62nd Army and broke into the center of the city, and at the junction of the 62nd and 64th Armies broke through to the Volga. The river was completely shot through by German troops. Hunting followed every ship and even a boat. Despite this, during the battle for the city from the left bank to the right, over 82,000 soldiers and officers, a large quantity of military equipment, food and other military cargoes were transported, and about 52,000 wounded and civilians were evacuated to the left bank.
The struggle for bridgeheads near the Volga, especially at the Mamayev Kurgan and plants in the northern part of the city, lasted more than two months. Battles for the plant "Red October", a tractor plant and the artillery plant "Barricades" became known throughout the world. While the Soviet soldiers continued to defend their positions, firing at the Germans, factory workers and factories were repairing damaged Soviet tanks and weapons in the immediate vicinity of the battlefield, and sometimes even on the battlefield itself. The specificity of the fighting in the enterprises was limited use of firearms because of the danger of ricochet: the battles were fought using piercing, cutting and crushing objects, and also hand-to-hand.
The German military doctrine was based on the interaction of the service arms in general and particularly close interaction of infantry, sappers, artillery and dive bombers. In response, the Soviet soldiers tried to be located tens of meters from enemy positions, in which case German artillery and aviation could not act without risking their own. Often the opponents shared a wall, a floor or a landing. In this case, the German infantry had to fight on equal terms with the Soviet - rifles, grenades, bayonets and knives. The struggle was for every street, every plant,
Soviet snipers, using the ruins as shelters, also inflicted heavy damage on the Germans. Sniper Vasily Grigorievich Zaitsev during the battle destroyed 225 soldiers and enemy officers (including 11 snipers).
For both Stalin and Hitler, the battle for Stalingrad became a matter of prestige in addition to the strategic importance of the city. The Soviet command moved the reserves of the Red Army from Moscow to the Volga, and also transferred air forces from virtually the entire country to the Stalingrad area.
On the morning of October 14, the 6th German Army began a decisive offensive on the Soviet bridgeheads off the Volga. It was supported by more than a thousand aircraft of the 4th Luftwaffe air fleet. The concentration of German troops was unprecedented - three infantry and two tank divisions attacked the tractor plant and the Barrikady plant on the front only about 4 km. The Soviet units stubbornly defended, supported by artillery fire from the eastern shore of the Volga and from the ships of the Volga Military Flotilla. However, the artillery on the left bank of the Volga began to experience a shortage of ammunition in connection with the preparation of the Soviet counteroffensive. November 9, the cold started, the air temperature dropped to minus 18 degrees. Crossings across the Volga became extremely difficult due to ice floes floating along the river, the troops of the 62nd Army experienced an acute shortage of ammunition and food. By the end of the day on November 11, the German troops managed to capture the southern part of the Barrikady plant and to break through to the Volga in a 500-m stretch, the 62nd Army was now holding three isolated bridgeheads (the smallest of which was Ludnikova Island). The divisions of the 62nd Army after the losses suffered totaled only 500-700 people. But the German divisions also suffered huge losses, in many parts of the fighting more than 40% of the personnel were killed.
Preparing Soviet troops for a counteroffensive
The Don Front was formed on September 30, 1942. It included: 1st Guards, 21st, 24th, 63rd and 66th Armies, 4th Panzer Army, 16th Air Army. Commander Lieutenant-General K. K. Rokossovsky actively began to implement the "old dream" of the right flank of the Stalingrad Front - to encircle the German 14th Panzer Corps and connect with units of the 62nd Army.
Having assumed command, Rokossovsky found the newly formed front in the offensive - carrying out the GHQ order, on Sept. 30 at 5:00, after the artillery preparation, the units of the 1st Guards, 24th and 65th Armies took the offensive. Two days were heavy fighting. But, as noted in the document of the CAMO - the armies did not have any advancements, and moreover, as a result of the Germans' counterattacks, several heights were left. By October 2, the offensive was exhausted.
But here, from the reserve of the Stavka Donskoy, the front receives seven fully equipped rifle divisions (277, 62, 252, 212, 262, 331, 293 SD). The command of the Don front decides to use fresh forces for a new offensive. October 4 Rokossovsky instructs to develop an offensive operation plan, and on October 6 the plan was ready. The operation was scheduled for October 10. But by this time there are several events.
On October 5, 1942, Stalin, in a telephone conversation with AI Eremenko, sharply criticized the leadership of the Stalingrad Front and demanded that immediate measures be taken to stabilize the front and then defeat the enemy. In reply to this, on October 6, Eremenko makes a report to Stalin on the situation and considerations on the further actions of the front. The first part of this document is the justification and blame for the Donskoy Front ("they had high hopes for help from the north", etc.). In the second part of the report Eremenko proposes to carry out an operation to encircle and destroy the German units near Stalingrad. There, for the first time, it is suggested that the encirclement of the 6th Army be flanked by Romanian forces and, after the breakthrough of the fronts, be connected in the Kalach-na-Donu area.
The headquarters considered Eremenko's plan, but then considered it impossible (too much depth of operation, etc.). In fact, the idea of launching a counter-offensive was discussed by Stalin, Zhukov and Vasilevsky on September 12, and by September 13, preliminary plans for the plan for the creation of the Don Front had been prepared and submitted to Stalin. And Zhukov's command of the 1st Guards, 24th and 66th Armies was adopted on August 27 along with his appointment as Deputy Supreme Commander-in-Chief. The 1st Guards Army was at that time in the South-Western Front, and the 24th and 66th Armies, specially for the operation entrusted to Zhukov to drive the enemy away from the northern regions of Stalingrad, were withdrawn from the Stavka reserve. After the formation of the front, Rokossovsky was entrusted with the command, and Zhukov was instructed to prepare the offensive of the Kalinin and Western fronts in order to link the forces of the Germans so that they could not transfer them to support the Army Group "South".
As a result, the Stavka proposed the following variant of encirclement and the defeat of the German troops at Stalingrad: the Don Front was supposed to inflict the main blow in the direction of Kotluban, break through the front and enter the Gumrak area. Simultaneously, the Stalingrad Front is conducting an offensive from the Gornaya Polyana area to Yelshanka, and after the breakthrough of the front, the units advance to the Gumrak area, where they join up with the units of the Don Front. In this operation, the commanders of the fronts were allowed to use fresh parts: the Don Front - 7 rifle divisions (277, 62, 252, 212, 262, 331, 293), the Stalingrad Front - the 7th Rifle Corps, 4th Cavalry Corps). On October 7, the General Staff directive No. 170644 issued an instruction to conduct an offensive operation by two fronts surrounding the 6th Army, and the operation was scheduled for October 20.
Thus, it was planned to encircle and destroy only German troops that are engaged in combat operations directly in Stalingrad (14th Panzer Corps, 51st and 4th Infantry Corps, about 12 divisions).
The command of the Don Front was displeased with this directive. October 9 Rokossovsky provided his plan for an offensive operation. He referred to the impossibility of breaking the front in the area of Kotluban. According to his calculations - for a breakthrough, 4 divisions were required, for the development of a breakthrough - 3 divisions and 3 more for cover against enemy strikes; Thus, seven fresh divisions were clearly not enough. Rokossovsky proposed the main blow to inflict in the Kuzmichi area (altitude 139.7), that is all according to the same old scheme: to surround parts of the 14th Panzer Corps, to connect with the 62nd Army and only after that move to Gumrak on connection with parts 64 Army. On this headquarters of the Don Front planned 4 days: from 20 to 24 October. The "Oryol ridge" of the Germans did not give rest to Rokossovsky since August 23, so he decided to first deal with this "corn", and after that complete the complete encirclement of the enemy.
The Stavka did not accept Rokossovsky's proposal and recommended that he prepare an operation for the Stavka plan; However, he was allowed to conduct a private operation against the Orel group of Germans on October 10, without attracting fresh forces.
On October 9, parts of the 1st Guards Army, as well as the 24th and 66th Armies launched an offensive in the direction of Orlovka. The attacking group was supported by 42 Il-2 attack aircraft, under cover of 50 fighters of the 16th Air Army. The first day of the offensive ended in vain. The 1st Guards Army (298, 258, 207 SD) had no advance, and the 24th Army advanced 300 meters. 299 SD (66th Army), advancing to a height of 127.7, bearing heavy losses, had no advance. On October 10, the offensive attempts continued, but towards evening they finally weakened and stopped. The next "operation to eliminate the Orel grouping" failed. As a result of this offensive, the 1st Guards Army was disbanded because of the losses incurred. Having transferred the remaining parts of the 24th Army, the administration was withdrawn to the Stavka reserve.
||Дата: Среда, 15.03.2017, 08:24 | Сообщение # 2|
|The alignment of forces in Operation Uranus|
South-Western Front (commander - lieutenant-general, since December 7, 1942 - Colonel-General, since February 13, 1943 - Army General N. F. Vatutin). It included:
The 21st Army (Lieutenant-General IM Chistyakov);
The 5th Tank Army (Major-General PL Romanenko);
The 1st Guards Army (Lieutenant-General D. D. Lelyushenko);
The 17th (major general aviation, from December 1942 - Lieutenant General of aviation SA Krasovsky) and
The 2nd (Colonel, since October 1942 - Major-General of aviation KN Smirnov) air armies.
The Don Front (commander - Lieutenant-General, since January 1943 - Colonel General K. K. Rokossovsky). It consisted of:
The 65th Army (Lieutenant-General PI Batov);
The 24th Army (Major-General, from January 1943 - Lieutenant-General IV Galanin);
The 66th Army (Lieutenant-General A. S. Zhadov) and
The 16th Air Army (Major-General SI Rudenko).
Stalingrad Front (commander - Colonel-General AI Eremenko). It included:
The 62nd Army (Lieutenant-General VI Chuikov);
64th Army (Major-General, from December 1942 - Lieutenant-General M. S. Shumilov);
The 57th Army (Major-General, since January 1943 - Lieutenant-General F. I. Tolbukhin);
The 51st Army (Major-General NI Trufanov) and
The 8th Air Army (Major-General, from March 1943 - Lieutenant-General of Aircraft TT Khryukin).
Army Group "B" (commander - M. Weichs). It included:
The 6th Army - the commander of the general of the tank troops Friedrich Paulus;
2nd Army - the commander of the General of Infantry Hans von Salmouth;
4th Panzer Army - Commander Colonel-General Herman Goth;
The 8th Italian army - the commander of the army general Italo Gariboldi;
Hungarian 2nd Army - Colonel-General Gustav Jani;
The 3rd Romanian Army - the commander of Colonel-General Petre Dumitrescu and
The 4th Romanian army is commanded by Colonel-General Konstantin Constantinescu.
4 air fleet - commander-in-chief Colonel-General Wolfram von Richthofen.
Army Group "Don" (commander - E. Manstein). It included the 6th Army, the 3rd Romanian Army, the army group Goth, the operational group Hollidt.
The offensive of Soviet troops (Operation Uranus)
The beginning of the offensive and the control of the Wehrmacht
November 19, 1942 began the offensive of the Red Army in Operation "Uranium". On November 23, a ring of encirclement around the 6th Wehrmacht army closed in the Kalach area. The plan "Uranus" failed completely, since it was not possible to dismember the 6th Army in two parts from the very beginning (by striking the 24th Army in the interfluve between the Volga and the Don). Attempts to liquidate the surrounded on the move under these conditions also failed, despite the considerable superiority in the forces - the superior tactical preparation of the Germans affected. However, the 6th Army was isolated and fuel, ammunition and food supplies progressively decreased, despite attempts to supply it by air, undertaken by the 4th Air Fleet under the command of Wolfram von Richthofen.
The newly formed Wehrmacht Army Group "Don" under the command of Field Marshal Manstein made an attempt to break through the blockade of the encircled troops (Operation Wintergewitter, Winter Thunderstorm), which was originally planned to begin on December 10, but the offensive actions of the Red Army on the outer front of the encirclement forced to postpone the start Operation on December 12. By this date, the Germans were able to provide only one full-fledged tank formation - the 6th Panzer Division of the Wehrmacht and (from the infantry formations) the remains of the defeated 4th Romanian Army.These units were under the control of the 4th Panzer Army under the command of G. Gotha During the offensive, the grouping was reinforced by the very battered 11th and 17th Panzer Divisions and three airfield divisions.
By 19 December, in fact, the defensive systems of the Soviet forces that had broken through the defenses of the 4th Panzer Army were confronted with the 2nd Guards Army, which had just been transferred from the Stavka reserve under the command of R. Ya. Malinovsky, which consisted of two rifle and one mechanized corps.
Operation "Small Saturn"
According to the plan of the Soviet command, after the defeat of the 6th Army, the forces engaged in the operation "Uranus" were deployed to the west and advanced towards Rostov-on-Don within the framework of Operation Saturn. At the same time, the southern wing of the Voronezh Front struck a blow against the 8th Italian army north of Stalingrad and advanced directly to the west (towards the Donets) with an auxiliary blow to the southwest (towards Rostov-on-Don), covering the northern flank of the South-Western Front during a hypothetical offensive. However, due to the incomplete implementation of "Uranus", "Saturn" was replaced by "Small Saturn".
The spurt to Rostov-on-Don (because Zhukov was distracted by the bulk of the Red Army troops for the unsuccessful offensive operation "Mars" near Rzhev, and also because of the shortage of seven armies staked by the 6th Army near Stalingrad) was no longer planned.
The Voronezh Front, together with the Southwestern and part of the forces of the Stalingrad Front, was intended to drive the enemy 100-150 km to the west from the encircled 6th Army and defeat the 8th Italian Army (Voronezh Front). The offensive was planned to begin on December 10, but the problems associated with the delivery of new parts necessary for the operation (which were on the ground were connected at Stalingrad) led to the fact that AM Vasilevsky authorized (with the knowledge of JV Stalin) Operations on December 16. On December 16-17, the front of the Germans on Chir and on the positions of the 8th Italian Army was broken, the Soviet tank corps rushed into operational depth. Manstein reports that of the Italian divisions only one light and one or two infantry divisions rendered any serious resistance, the headquarters of the 1st Romanian Corps fled in panic from its command post. By the end of December 24, Soviet troops had reached the Millerovo, Tatsinskaya, and Morozovsk lines. During eight days of fighting, the mobile forces of the front advanced 100-200 km. However, in the mid-20s of December, the operational reserves (four German tank divisions well-equipped), originally designed to strike during Operation Wintergitter, began to approach the Army Group Don, which, in the aftermath of Manstein's own words, was the reason Its failure.
By December 25, these reserves inflicted counterstrikes, during which 24 tank corps VM Badanov had been cut off, which had just burst into the Tatsinskaya airfield (about 300 German aircraft were destroyed at the aerodrome and at the train station). By December 30, the corps from the encirclement broke free, refueling the tanks with a mixture of aviation fuel with engine oil captured at the airport. By the end of December, the advancing troops of the South-Western Front had reached the boundary of New Kalitva, Markovka, Millerovo, and Chernyshevskaya. As a result of the Sredondon operation, the main forces of the 8th Italian army were defeated (with the exception of the Alpine Corps, which was not attacked), the rout of the 3rd Romanian army was completed, and the Hollidt operative group was badly damaged. 17 divisions and three brigades of the fascist bloc were destroyed or suffered great damage. 60,000 soldiers and enemy officers were taken prisoner. The rout of the Italian and Romanian forces created the prerequisites for the Red Army's advance into the offensive on the Kotelnikovo direction, where the troops of the 2nd Guards and 51st Armies reached the line of Tormosin, Zhukovskaya and Kommisarovsky by December 31, having completed 100-150 km, Th Rumanian army and threw away parts of the newly formed 4th Panzer Army 200 km from Stalingrad. After that, the front line temporarily stabilized, since neither Soviet nor German troops had enough strength to break through the enemy's tactical defense zone.
Fighting during the operation "Ring"
On December 27, N. N. Voronov sent the first version of the "Ring" plan to the Supreme Command Headquarters. The rate in Directive No. 170718 of December 28, 1942 (with the signatures of Stalin and Zhukov) demanded changes in the plan, so that it envisaged dismemberment of the Sixth Army in two parts before its destruction. Corresponding changes were made to the plan. On January 10, the Soviet offensive began, the main blow was struck in the band of the 65th Army of General Batov. However, the German resistance was so serious that the offensive had to be temporarily stopped. From 17 to 22 January, the offensive was suspended for regrouping, new attacks on January 22-26 led to the dismemberment of the 6th Army into two groups (Soviet troops joined in the Mamayev Kurgan area), by January 31, the southern grouping was liquidated (command and staff 6 captured Army led by Paulus), by February 2, the northern grouping of the 11th Army Corps, Colonel-General Karl Shtreker, surrounded by a commander of the 11th Army capitulated. Shooting in the city was going on until February 3 - the "Khivi" resisted even after the German surrender on February 2, 1943, as they did not threaten them with captivity. The liquidation of the 6th Army was to be completed within a week, according to the plan "Ring", but in reality it lasted 23 days. (The 24th Army withdrew from the front on January 26 and was sent to the reserve of the Supreme Headquarters).
In total during Operation Ring, more than 2,500 officers and 24 generals of the 6th Army were captured. In total, more than 91,000 soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht were taken prisoner, of which no more than 20% returned to Germany after the war, most of them died of exhaustion, dysentery and other diseases. The trophies of the Soviet troops from January 10 to February 2, 1943, according to the report of the headquarters of the Don Front, were 5762 guns, 1312 mortars, 12701 machine guns, 156 987 rifles, 10 722 assault rifles, 744 aircraft, 166 tanks, 261 armored vehicles, 80 438 vehicles, 10 679 motorcycles , 240 tractors, 571 tractor units, 3 armored trains and other military equipment.
Twenty German divisions capitulated in total: the 14th, 16th and 24th Tank, 3rd, 29th and 60th Motorized Infantry, 100th Jaegers, 44th, 71st, 76th, I, 79th, 94th, 113th, 295th, 297th, 305th, 371st, 376th, 384th, 389th Infantry Divisions. In addition, the Romanian 1st Cavalry and 20th Infantry Divisions surrendered. The Croatian regiment surrendered to the 100th Jaegers. The 91st Air Defense Regiment, the 243rd and 245th separate battalions of assault guns, the 2nd and 51st regiments of jet mortars also capitulated.
Air supply of the surrounding grouping
Hitler, after consulting with the leadership of the Luftwaffe, decided to organize the supply of the surrounding troops by air. Such an operation was already carried out by German airmen, who supplied troops in the Demyan boiler. To maintain the acceptable combat capability of the surrounding units, daily deliveries of 700 tons of cargo were required. Luftwaffe promised to provide daily supplies of 300 tons. The cargo was delivered to the airfields: Bolshaya Rossoshka, Basargino, Gumrak, Voroponovo and Kennel - the largest in the ring. The return flights were taken seriously by the wounded. Under favorable circumstances, the Germans managed to make more than 100 flights per day to the surrounding troops. The main bases for supplying the blocked troops were Tatsinskaya, Morozovsk, Tormosin and Bogoyavlenskaya. But as the Soviet forces advanced westward, the Germans had to move supply bases farther from Paulus's forces: Zverevo, Shakhty, Kamensk-Shakhtinsky, Novocherkassk, Mechetinskaya and Salsk. At the last stage, aerodromes were used in Artyomovsk, Gorlovka, Makeyevka and Stalino.
Soviet troops fought actively with air traffic. Bombings and assaults were subjected to both airfields of supply, and others located on the surrounding territory. To combat enemy aircraft, Soviet aviation used patrolling, duty at the airfield and free hunting. At the beginning of December, the system of combating enemy air transport organized by Soviet troops was based on division by zones of responsibility. The first zone included the territories from which the encircled group was supplied, parts 17 and 8 of the VA operated here. The second zone was located around the troops of Paulus over the territory controlled by the Red Army. In it, two belts of guidance radios were created, the zone itself was divided into 5 sectors, one fighter air division in each (102 air raids and 8 and 16 VA divisions). The third zone, where the anti-aircraft artillery was located, also surrounded a blocked grouping. It was 15-30 km deep, and at the end of December it contained 235 small and medium-sized guns and 241 anti-aircraft guns. The area occupied by the encircled grouping belonged to the fourth zone where parts 8, 16 VA and the night regiment of the air defense division operated. To counteract the night flights at Stalingrad, one of the first Soviet aircraft with an on-board radar was used, subsequently launched into mass production.
In connection with the increased resistance of the Soviet Air Force, the Germans had to switch from flying to day to flight in difficult meteorological conditions and at night, when there was a greater chance of making a voyage unnoticed. On January 10, 1943, an operation began to destroy the encircled grouping, as a result of which the main airfield Kennel was abandoned on 14 January, and the 21st and last airfield was Gumrak, after which the cargo was dropped by parachute. A few days there was a landing area near the village of Stalingrad, but it was available only to small aircraft; 26th landing and it became impossible. During the period of supply by air of the surrounded troops, 94 tons of cargo a day were on average delivered. In the most successful days, the value reached 150 tons of cargo. Hans Durr estimates the loss of the Luftwaffe in this operation in 488 aircraft and 1,000 flight personnel and believes that these were the biggest losses since the air operation against England.
The victory of the Soviet troops in the Battle of Stalingrad is the largest military-political event during the Second World War. The great battle that ended with the encirclement, defeat and capture of the elite enemy grouping, made a huge contribution to the achievement of a radical change in the course of the Great Patriotic War and had a serious impact on the further course of the entire Second World War.
In the Battle of Stalingrad, new features of the military art of the Armed Forces of the USSR were manifested with all their might. Soviet operational art enriched itself with the experience of encirclement and annihilation of the enemy.
An important component of the success of the Red Army was the totality of measures for military and economic support for the troops.
The victory at Stalingrad had a decisive influence on the further course of the Second World War. As a result of the battle, the Red Army firmly seized the strategic initiative and now dictated its will to the enemy. This changed the nature of the actions of the German troops in the Caucasus, in the districts of Rzhev and Demyansk. The blows of the Soviet troops forced the Wehrmacht to issue an order for the preparation of the Eastern Wall, which was supposed to stop the Soviet Army offensive.
During the Battle of Stalingrad, the 3rd and 4th Romanian armies (22 divisions), the 8th Italian Army and the Italian Alpine Corps (10 divisions), the 2nd Hungarian Army (10 divisions), the Croatian Regiment were defeated. The 6th and 7th Rumanian army corps, which were part of the 4th Panzer Army, which were not destroyed, were completely demoralized. As Manstein notes: "Dimitresku was powerless to fight alone with the demoralization of his troops. There was nothing else left but to remove them and send them to the rear, to their homeland. " In the future, Germany could not count on new recruitment contingents from Romania, Hungary, Slovakia. She had to use the remaining Allied divisions only for carrying out rear service, fighting partisans and on some secondary sectors of the front.
In the Stalingrad boiler were destroyed:
In the 6th German Army: the headquarters of the 8th, 11th, 51st Army and 14th Panzer Corps; 44, 71, 76, 113, 295, 305, 376, 384, 389, 394 infantry divisions, 100th Mountain Infantry Division, 14, 16 and 24 Tank, 3rd and 60th Motorized, 1st Romanian Cavalry, 9 Division of Air Defense.
As part of the 4th Panzer Army, the headquarters of the 4th Army Corps; 297 and 371 infantry, 29 motorized, 1 and 20 Romanian infantry divisions. Most of the artillery of the RGC, the division of the Todt organization, the large forces of the engineering units of the RGC.
Also, the 48th Panzer Corps (the first train) is the 22nd Panzer Division, the Romanian Panzer Division.
Outside the cauldron, 5 divisions of the 2nd Army and 24 tank corps were defeated (lost 50-70% of the composition). The 57th Panzer Corps from Army Group "A", the 48th Panzer Corps (the second convoy), the Gollydt, Kempf, and Fretter-Pico divisions suffered tremendous losses. Several airfield divisions, a large number of separate units and formations were destroyed.
In March 1943, in the army group "South" at a site 700 km from Rostov-on-Don to Kharkov, with the reinforcement received, only 32 divisions remained.
As a result of actions to supply the troops surrounded by Stalingrad and several smaller boilers, German aviation was greatly weakened.
The outcome of the Battle of Stalingrad caused confusion and confusion in the Axis countries. The crisis of pro-fascist regimes began in Italy, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia. The influence of Germany on its allies has sharply weakened, the differences between them have become noticeably aggravated. In the political circles of Turkey, the desire to maintain neutrality has intensified. In the relations of neutral countries, elements of restraint and alienation began to predominate in Germany.
As a result of the defeat before Germany, the problem arose of restoring the losses incurred in engineering and people. The head of the economic department of the OKW, General G. Thomas stated that the losses in technology are equivalent to the number of combat equipment of 45 divisions from all branches of the armed forces and are equal to the losses for the entire previous period of the battles on the Soviet-German front. Goebbels at the end of January 1943 said "Germany will be able to withstand Russian attacks only if it manages to mobilize its last human reserves." Losses in tanks and cars amounted to six months of production in the country, in artillery - three months, in shooting and mortars - two months.
In the Soviet Union, a medal "For the Defense of Stalingrad" was established, on January 1, 1995 it was awarded 759 561 people. In Germany, after the defeat in Stalingrad was declared a three-day mourning.
Reaction in the world
Many statesmen and politicians highly appreciated the victory of the Soviet troops. In a letter to Joseph Stalin (February 5, 1943), Roosevelt called the Battle of Stalingrad an epic struggle, the decisive result of which is celebrated by all Americans. On May 17, 1944, Roosevelt sent a letter to Stalingrad:
"On behalf of the people of the United States of America, I am giving this letter to the city of Stalingrad, to commemorate our admiration for its valiant defenders, the courage, strength of spirit and dedication which, from the time of the siege from September 13, 1942 to January 31, 1943, will forever inspire the hearts of all free people. Their glorious victory stopped the wave of invasion and became a turning point in the war of the Allied nations against the forces of aggression. "
The Prime Minister of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, in his message to JV Stalin dated February 1, 1943, called the victory of the Soviet Army under Stalingrad a marvelous one. The King of Great Britain, George VI, sent Stalingrad a donation sword with the inscription engraved on the blade of which in Russian and English:
"Citizens of Stalingrad, strong as steel, - from King George VI as a sign of deep admiration of the British people. "
At a conference in Tehran, Churchill presented the Soviet delegation the Sword of Stalingrad. The inscription on the blade was engraved with the inscription: "The gift of King George VI to staunch defenders of Stalingrad as a sign of respect from the British people." Presenting the gift, Churchill uttered a heartfelt speech. Stalin took the sword with both hands, raised it to his lips and kissed the scabbard. When the Soviet leader handed the relic to Marshal Voroshilov, the sword fell out of the scabbard and fell to the floor with a roar. This annoying incident somewhat marred the triumph of the moment.
During the battle, and especially after its end, the activities of public organizations of the USA, Britain, and Canada, which advocated more effective assistance to the Soviet Union, intensified. For example, members of the New York trade unions raised $ 250,000 to build a hospital in Stalingrad. Chairman of the Union of Garment Manufacturers said:
"We are proud that the workers of New York will establish a connection with Stalingrad, who will live in history as a symbol of the immortal courage of the great people and whose defense was a turning point in the struggle of mankind against oppression ... Every Red Army man defending his Soviet land, killing the Nazi, Most saves lives and American soldiers. Let us remember this when calculating our debt to the Soviet ally. "
American astronaut Donald Slayton, a participant in the Second World War, recalled:
"When the Hitlerites surrendered, our jubilation had no limit. Everyone understood that this was a turn in the war, this was the beginning of the end of fascism. "
The victory at Stalingrad had a significant impact on the life of the occupied peoples, instilled hope of liberation. On the walls of many Warsaw houses appeared a picture - a heart pierced by a large dagger. The heart is inscribed "Great Germany", and on the blade - "Stalingrad".
Speaking on February 9, 1943, the famous French anti-fascist writer Jean-Richard Bloch said:
"... listen, Parisians! The first three divisions that invaded Paris in June 1940, three divisions that defiled our capital at the invitation of the French General Denz, these three divisions - one hundredth, one hundred and thirteenth and two hundred ninety-fifth - do not exist anymore! They were destroyed at Stalingrad: the Russians avenged Paris. The Russians are avenging France! "
The victory of the Soviet Army greatly raised the political and military prestige of the Soviet Union. The former Hitler generals in the memoirs recognized the enormous military and political significance of this victory. G. Durr wrote:
"For Germany, the Battle of Stalingrad was the gravest defeat in its history, for Russia - its greatest victory. Under Poltava (1709), Russia achieved the right to be called a great European power, Stalingrad was the beginning of its transformation into one of the two greatest world powers.
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Soviet: The total number of captured Soviet soldiers during the period July 1942 - February 1943 is unknown, but due to a heavy retreat after the lost battles in the bend of the Don and on the Volgodonsky isthmus, the score goes no less than tens of thousands. The fate of these soldiers is different depending on whether they were outside or inside the Stalingrad "boiler". Former prisoners inside the cauldron were kept in the camps of Rossoshki, Kennel, Dulag-205. After the Wehrmacht encirclement, because of food shortages, from December 5, 1942 prisoners were no longer fed, and almost all of them died within three months of hunger and cold. The Soviet army in the liberation of the territory managed to save only a few hundred people who were in a state of death before death.
Wehrmacht and allies: The total number of captured Wehrmacht fighters and their allies for the period July 1942 - February 1943 is unknown, so the prisoners were taken by different fronts and passed through different records. The figure of 91 545 people who were captured at the final stage of the battle in the city center of Stalingrad from January 10 to February 22, 1943, including about 2,500 officers, 24 generals and Field Marshal Paulus, is accurately known. This figure includes servicemen of European countries and working organizations of Todt who took part in the battle on the German side. Citizens of the USSR, who went to the service of the enemy and served the Wehrmacht as a "khivi", do not enter this figure, since they were considered criminals. The number of captured "khivi" from 20880 who were in the 6th Army on October 24, 1942 is unknown.
The camp No. 108 with the center in the Stalingrad working settlement Beketovka was urgently set up to keep the prisoners captive. Almost all prisoners were extremely exhausted, they received rations on the verge of starvation for 3 months, since the November encirclement. Therefore, the death rate among them was extremely high: by June 1943 of them 27 078 had died, was in treatment at Stalingrad camp hospitals, 35,099, 28,098 people were sent to hospitals of other camps. Only about 20 thousand people for health reasons were able to work on construction, these people were broken up into construction brigades and distributed among construction projects. After the peak of the first 3 months, the mortality rate returned to normal, and for the period from July 10, 1943 to January 1, 1949, 1777 people died. The prisoners worked a normal working day and were paid for their work (up to 1949, 8,976,304 person-days were worked out, the salary was 10,797,011 rubles), for which they bought food and household essentials in camp stores. The last prisoners of war were released to Germany in 1949, except for those who received criminal sentences for personally committed war crimes.
The Battle of Stalingrad as a turning point in the Second World War had a great impact on world history. In the cinema, literature, music, there is a constant appeal to the Stalingrad theme, the very word "Stalingrad" has acquired numerous meanings. In many cities around the world there are streets, avenues, squares associated with the memory of the battle. Stalingrad and Coventry in 1943 became the first sister cities, having originated this international movement. One of the elements of the sister cities is the name of the streets with the city's name, so there are Stalingradskaya streets in the sister cities of Volgograd (some of them have been renamed to Volgograd in the framework of de-Stalinization). The name associated with Stalingrad was obtained: the Paris metro station "Stalingrad", the asteroid "Stalingrad", the type of cruisers Stalingrad.
Most of the monuments of the Battle of Stalingrad are located in Volgograd, the most famous of which are part of the Stalingrad Battle Museum: Motherland Calling! On the Mamayev Hill, a panorama of the Defeat of the German Fascist Forces near Stalingrad, and the Gergardt Mill. In 1995, in the Gorodishchensky district of the Volgograd region, the soldiers' cemetery "Rossoshki" was created, where there is a German site with a commemorative sign and the graves of German soldiers.
The Battle of Stalingrad left a significant number of documentary literary works. On the Soviet side, there are memoirs of the first deputy Supreme Commander Zhukov, commander of the 62nd Army Chuikov, head of the Stalingrad region Chuyanov, commander of the 13GSD Rodimtsev. "Soldier's" memories are represented by Afanasyev, Pavlov, and Nekrasov. Yuri Panchenko, who survived the battle with a teenager, wrote a book "163 days on the streets of Stalingrad." From the German side, the memories of the generals are represented by the memoirs of the Commander of the 6th Army Paulus and the Chief of the Personnel Department of the 6th Army Adam, the soldier's vision of the battle is represented by the books of Wehrmacht fighters Edelbert Hall, Hans Dörr. After the war, historians of different countries issued documentary literature on the study of the battle, among Russian writers the topic was explored by Alexei Isaev, Alexander Samsonov, in foreign literature often refer to the writer-historian Bivor.