||Дата: Среда, 15.03.2017, 08:44 | Сообщение # 1|
|February 23 - Defender of the Fatherland Day in Russia (holiday)|
Defender of the Fatherland Day is a holiday, celebrated on February 23 in Russia, Belarus, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan. It was established in the RSFSR on January 27, 1922, when the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee issued a decree on the fourth anniversary of the Red Army, which stated: "In accordance with the resolution of the Ninth All-Russian Congress of Soviets on the Red Army, the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee draws the attention of the executive committees to the upcoming anniversary of the creation of the Red Army (23 February) ». Originally referred to as the "Day of the Red Army and Navy". From 1946 to 1993 Was called "Day of the Soviet Army and Navy." After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the holiday also continues to be unofficially celebrated in a number of other CIS countries. It is a mistake to consider that this is a men's holiday, because both the representatives of the weak (female) sex always stood on the protection of the FATHERLAND, as well as it is a holiday of all who, as a result of their activities, protects the fatherland, regardless of professional and gender.
Occurrence of a holiday
January - February 1918
On January 15 (28), 1918, the Council of People's Commissars of Soviet Russia issued the Decree on the Establishment of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army (published January 20 (February 2), 1918, in the official press organ of the Bolshevik government). At the front, a new army of volunteer soldiers began to be recorded, of which Red Army companies were forming, gradually regrouping; But, for example, in Petrograd, the first point of entry into the Red Army was opened only on February 21, that is, after the German offensive began.
At 19:30 on February 16, the German command officially announced to the remaining Soviet representative in Brest-Litovsk that at 12:00 pm on February 18, the truce between Russia and Germany ends and the state of war is resumed. On February 18, German and Austro-Hungarian troops launched an offensive along the entire Eastern Front. As the historian Yuri Felshtinsky notes, relatively small German detachments were advancing, meeting almost no resistance: "Because of the panic and rumors that the mythical German troops were approaching, the city and station were left without a fight before the enemy arrived. Dvinsk, for example, was taken by a German detachment of 60-100 people. In Rezhitsa, the German detachment was so small that it could not take a telegraph, which worked for a whole day ".
On February 21, the Committee for the Revolutionary Defense of Petrograd, headed by Ya. M. Sverdlov, was established. On the evening of February 22, on the call of Lenin from Petrograd, the chief of staff of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, former General MD Bonch-Bruevich, who in fact headed the defense of Soviet Russia from an external enemy, arrived from Mogilev. After a meeting with Lenin and other representatives of the authorities, Bonch-Bruevich began work in Smolny, where he was located in a room next to Lenin's office.
The newspapers of those days reported that when the Germans launched an offensive, in Minsk the Council of People's Commissars in the western region began organizing detachments to protect the city. However, upon learning of the approach of the enemy, this guard immediately left their posts and rushed to the stations, taking the trains by storm. Residents locked themselves in houses, electricity in the city was extinguished. At 12 o'clock in the morning German troops entered the city. Lyutsin was taken as follows: only 42 people (Germans) came from Rezhitsa to the town in two cars. The Germans were very tired and before they went to the buffet, where they were heartily snacked. After that, they detained a train of soldiers ready to leave. The Germans built soldiers in a line on the platform, took their rifles from them and declared: "Now you are free. Marsh, wherever you like, just do not get the locomotives. "
The offensive against Reval, Pskov and Narva was conducted by the 8th German Army, consisting of 6 divisions and a number of other units. With the advance on the Pskov direction, the forces of the German side consisted of five regiments. The Germans attacked by small volatile detachments of volunteers who, "without meeting resistance, advanced on trains, cars and sleighs far ahead of the slow-pulling main forces." The speed of advance of the Germans reached 50 km per day, Moving from the Pinsk-Dvinsk-Riga line, the Germans occupied Minsk, Polotsk, Pskov, and Revel during the first week of the offensive.
The hopes of the Bolsheviks for the consolidated Red Army units and the "proletarian" Red Guard did not materialize. According to Antonov-Ovseyenko's memoirs, "the combined detachments were largely incapacitated, gave a large percentage of desertion, disobedience. Detachments of the Red Guard found in general a weak endurance, poor maneuverability and combat capability. " Having learned about the mobilization of the Red Guard and the forthcoming transformation of it into the Red Army, many Petrograd Red Guards hurried to surrender their weapons and go home.
In his article "A Hard, But Essential Lesson," published in Pravda on February 25, Lenin characterized the situation of those days:
The painfully shameful reports of the refusal of the regiments to maintain their positions, the refusal to protect even the Narva line, the failure to fulfill the order to destroy everything and everything during the retreat; We are not talking about flight, chaos, lack of hands, helplessness, slovenliness. There is no army in the Soviet Republic.
On February 23, 1918, an appeal of the Council of People's Commissars of February 21, "The Socialist Fatherland in Danger," and the "Appeal of the Military Commander-in-Chief" N. Krylenko, which ended with the words: "<...> All to arms. All to defend the revolution. The head-to-head mobilization for digging trenches and sending out trench groups is entrusted to councils with the appointment of responsible commissioners with unlimited powers for each detachment. This order is sent as an instruction to all councils in all cities. " On February 23, 1918, the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, VI Lenin, published an article in Pravda entitled "Peace or War," in which he insisted on the necessity of an immediate conclusion of peace; At the end of the article he called:
... to prepare the revolutionary army not with phrases and exclamations (as those who from January 7 did not do anything to even try to stop the running our troops), but by organizational work, by deed, by the creation of a serious, nation-wide, mighty army.
The situation of the Bolsheviks was further complicated by the fact that a significant part of Russian society welcomed the Germans' offensive. Here is how Ivan Bunin describes it: "In the newspapers - about the onset of the Germans' offensive. Everyone says: "Ah, if it were!" ... Yesterday they were at B. There were quite a number of people gathered - all in one voice: the Germans, thank God, are moving forward, took Smolensk and Bologoe ... Rumors of some Polish legions, They are going to save us ... The Germans do not seem to go, as they usually do in the war, fighting, conquering, and "just traveling by rail" - occupying Petersburg ... After yesterday's evening news that St. Petersburg has already been taken by the Germans, the newspapers were very disappointed ... ".
And here is what Mikhail Prishvin wrote in his diary on February 19, 1918 about conversations on Nevsky Prospekt:
"Today the Germans are told that the Germans will come to Petrograd soon, in two weeks. Popik, without concealing, joyfully says: Even before the spring will end. To him answer: Of course, until the spring it is necessary: otherwise the earth will not be seeded, the last grain is chosen. Weakly object: Do you think the Germans will not take a grain? They answer with conviction: They will take profits, we will be satisfied, it will be good for us and they will earn themselves, it's nothing. "
On the morning of February 23, a German ultimatum was presented to the Council of People's Commissars. At a meeting of the Central Committee of the RSDLP, Lenin, despite strong opposition, inclined the Central Committee members to take an ultimatum. Lenin demanded the conclusion of peace on German terms, threatening otherwise to resign. Lenin believed that the main thing was to save an island of the existing proletarian power at the cost of any losses. On the night of February 24, he was received. However, the German offensive continued until the signing of the peace treaty on March 4.
The Soviet historian Yu. Korablev writes that mass rallies were held in large cities on February 23, a mass recording of volunteers in the Red Army began on that day, and on February 25 the first Red Army detachments went to the front. According to another version, recruiting points were opened only on February 25, when a real attempt was made to start a mass entry into the Red Army in view of the continuing German offensive and the emerging threat to Petrograd.
After February 23, the Red detachments began to resist the German troops. In the town of Valke, the advancing German units entered into battle with a detachment of Latvian riflemen. The newspaper Pravda on February 24 said: "In Valka there is a battle of German drummers with a squad of Latvians in 300 people." Battles were fought near Pskov, near Reval, in the Gdov district.
On February 26, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR decides on the transfer of all authorities to Moscow.
On March 3, 1918, the Brest Peace was signed entirely on German terms.
Patriarch Tikhon in his message on March 5 (18), 1918, spoke out with a sharp condemnation of the Brest peace: "The world today, which is torn apart from us by whole regions populated by the Orthodox people, is abandoned to the will of a foreign enemy, and tens of millions of Orthodox People fall into the conditions of great spiritual temptation for their faith, ... the world that gives our people and the Russian land in heavy bondage - such a world will not give the people the desired rest and comfort. The Orthodox Church will bring great damage and grief, and the Fatherland incalculable losses. "
Establishment of a holiday
January 10, 1919 Chairman of the Supreme Military Inspection of the Red Army Nikolai Podvoisky sends a proposal to the All-Russian Central Executive Committee to celebrate the anniversary of the Red Army January 28:
January 28, the year from the day the Council of People's Commissars issued a decree on the creation of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army. It would be desirable to celebrate the anniversary of the creation of the Red Army, timed the celebration by January 28, the day of issuing the decree.
His request comes late and is only considered on January 23. As a result, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee rejects the delay in the proposal. Nevertheless, on January 24 the Presidium of the Moscow City Council is considering the issue "On the organization of a holiday in commemoration of the anniversary of the creation of the Red Army" and combines the celebration with the Day of the Red Gift - February 17. The day of the Red Gift was planned as a kind of charity event, when the population, according to the plan of the Bolsheviks, was to donate presents to the Red Army soldiers. But since February 17 came on Monday, the day of the Red Gift, and, accordingly, the anniversary of the Red Army was postponed for the next Sunday, that is, on February 23. The newspaper Pravda reported:
The arrangement of the day of the Red Gift across Russia was postponed to February 23. On this day, on the cities and on the front, the anniversary of the creation of the Red Army, which was celebrated on January 28, will be organized.
Then the holiday was for a few years forgotten and resumed in 1922. On January 27 of this year the decree of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee on the 4th anniversary of the Red Army was published, which stated:
In accordance with the resolution of the 9th All-Russian Congress of Soviets on the Red Army, the Presidium of the All-Russia Central Executive Committee draws the attention of the executive committees to the upcoming anniversary of the creation of the Red Army (February 23)
The first attempts to substantiate the date of February 23
In 1923, the 5th anniversary of the Red Army was widely celebrated, and the holidays on February 23 acquired the all-Union level. It was then, in the opinion of the historian V. Mironov, that attempts to invent an event justifying the date begin. For the first time the day of February 23 is directly named the day of the publication of the decree on the creation of the Red Army in the decree of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of January 18, 1923. In the order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic of February 5, 1923, signed by Trotsky, the event that served as the occasion for the holiday is defined as follows: "On February 23, 1918, under the pressure of the enemies, the workers 'and peasants' government proclaimed the necessity of creating an armed force." In the same year, the magazine "Military Thought and Revolution" published a statement that on February 23 the first Red Army unit was supposedly formed, taking part in battles in the north-west direction. The following year, a photocopy of Lenin's decree on the organization of the Red Army on January 15 (28), 1918, appeared with a false dating on February 23 in the journal Military Vestnik. V. Mironov explains this by saying that the Party-bureaucratic apparatus that was formed by that time was "important and profitable to hide the shame of 1918".
However, as early as 1933, Voroshilov at a solemn meeting devoted to the 15th anniversary of the Red Army recognized:
Incidentally, the timing of the anniversary celebrations of the Red Army by February 23 is rather random and difficult to explain and does not coincide with historical dates.
Events near Pskov and Narva and their interpretation
In the second half of the 30's. 20th century in the USSR, the events of February 1918 began to be interpreted as a victory won over these days by the Germans near Pskov and Narva. According to archival data, by the evening of February 23, 1918, the German army was 55 km from Pskov and 170 km from Narva. No fights on this day either in the Germanic or in the Soviet archives have been recorded.
Occupation by the Germans of Pskov
To capture Pskov, which was the center of the entire Northern Front, the German command moved 5 regiments (4 infantry and 1 cavalry) and artillery units. These troops advanced to Pskov along railroads and highways from the south of the Island and southwest from Valka. Directly for the capture of Pskov, the flying detachments of the 53rd German Corps of the 8th Army (Gen. G. Kirbach) of the Army Group D were moved - mainly the forces of the 78th Division attacked the city. 2). On February 21, taking Rezhitsa and arranging the convoy captured in Dvinsk, which was equipped with armored sandbags with gun platforms (which is why it appears in Soviet literature as an "armored train") - the Germans with this train and with the support of armored cars moved to Pskov. B.Pozern, member of the command of the troops of the Northern Front, noted the extremely small number of Germans advancing on Pskov: "According to the information, they are counted almost by companies, although their gain is that they have artillery and cavalry. It seems to be a small amount. "
On February 21 Pskov was declared a state of siege. In the city there was a large number of soldiers, as the city itself was covered by the 12th Russian army (running from Dvinsk and Riga), and then, in the area of the Island, there was the 1st Army. However, in view of their complete incapacity, they were ordered to retreat to the districts of Novgorod, Luga and Staraya Russa, and the soldiers hastily left the city along the highway to Luga. The city was guarded by the company of the Pskov Red Guards and soldiers-conscripts with the number of up to 100 men under the command of the Chief of the Extraordinary Military Staff attached to the Black Front Command of the Black Front, as well as the two companies and machine-gun team of the 2nd Riga Latvian Regiment under the command of the elected regiment commander Yu. Yu. Apolla, partisan detachment of volunteer soldiers of the 20th Siberian Regiment under the command of Sergeant-Major I. Lyashkevich, Red Guards detachments formed in Valka, part of the Executive Committee of the Joint Council of Latvian Riflemen (Iskulostrel) and the Executive Committee of the Council of Soldiers' Deputies Iskosola) of the 12th Army of the Northern Front and the 2nd Red Army Regiment under the command of former Captain AI Cherepanov, manned from volunteer soldiers of the 12th Army. The evening of February 23 at the Theater. Pushkin was convened a meeting of the Bolshevik activists to discuss the situation. The meeting was opened by Pozern with a statement that the tsarist army was completely decayed and incapacitated, one autorot under the command of A.Ivanov can not contain the enemy, there is no help from Petrograd. Speaking then MP Usharnov said that rallies in the factories and plants do not give anything, no one wants to defend the Soviet power, and the railwaymen are directly anti-Soviet and openly sabotage. The then member of the Military Revolutionary Committee, A. Ivanov, reported that there was no artillery, since some of the guns were thrown by the soldiers into the water closet on the Irkutsk parade ground, some were taken to the dump, all the guns were rendered unfit for use. Railwaymen, sabotaging, refused to give the locomotive for the evacuation of pyroxylinic warehouses. The rest of the speakers confirmed this picture. However, it was decided to stay in their places. But soon, with the news of the fall of the Island, it was decided to evacuate to Toroshino (20 km to the St. Petersburg from Pskov).
On February 23, 1918, the German units were at distant approaches to Pskov. About 21 hours, Poserne reported to Petrograd: "The Germans are 25 versts from Pskov and go by armored cars along the highway and by train by train. Obviously, they will be in Pskov in a few hours ". According to Cherepanov's recollections, on the evening of February 23, his regiment on the Cherekh-Szeg (10-15 km from the city), entered the battle with the Germans advancing along the railway, and managed to stop them for a short time. However, the truthfulness of Cherepanov's memories is being questioned, Cherepanov was forced to adjust to the official version of events, and she linked the real battle on Cereiha with the date of February 23 and insisted on the victory of the Red Army soldiers. According to the historian A. Mikhailov, the battle on the river Cerecha occurred on the afternoon of February 24. According to the same memories of another participant of the same battle, Ivan Tymoshenko (he commanded a company of railway troops, neighbors of Cherepanov's regiment), the Germans appeared before the positions of the Reds late on the evening of February 23, but were stopped by their fire. In the morning the battle began, which for some time was proceeding with varying success, at some point the Germans broke through the Red Front, the Red Cavalry liquidated the breakthrough and in turn broke 3 kilometers into the depths of German positions, but was stopped and repulsed by German reserves. Finally, according to Pskov local historian archivist NV Kolomytseva, there was not even a shootout on February 23, a German advance detachment of up to one company came to the Soviet positions in the morning of the 24th and after a short but fierce battle broke through them. IV Ivanov recalled: "Hours in 11 (February 24) in the area of Chereka-Lopatino, machine guns were heard firing the machine gun" Maxim "and the German machine gun in small bursts with large gaps, about one o'clock the shooting was over." According to Cherepanov's memoirs, on February 24 his regiment was circumambulated by the Germans along country roads and retreated to the outskirts of Pskov, covering the highway to Luga, along which the escape of the soldiers of the 12th Army continued: "From its position it was clearly seen how an endless line was moving from Pskov To the east the carts and demoralized parts of the old army. " In Pskov, the situation was complicated by the pogroms that began on February 24: "In the morning of February 24, the tension reached its highest levels. The robberies began, which hardly stopped. At the market (now Soviet) Square deputy. Chairman of the Council Kleineshhert, sent to stop robbery, was killed by a group of pogrom-minded soldiers. The corpse was lying on the square, people were passing by indifferently around him in different directions. " The market square was directly in front of the Council building. Then the Germans, taking advantage of the prevailing chaos, the country roads bypassed the right flank of the Pskov Red Guards and captured the Pskov-1 station at six o'clock. At the same time they were greeted by the fierce machine gun fire of Latvians, who tried to counterattack, but eventually were broken by the pressure of the Germans. After that, the 2nd Regiment and the Letts were ordered to retreat. The regiment retreated along the highway to Lugo-Petrograd to the Toroshino station, where all the institutions were evacuated from Pskov. For some time the small groups of Red Guards in the city that remained in different places conducted machine-gun fire on the Germans, covering the retreat. The Bolshevik worker IV Ivanov, one of the organizers of the group, who joined the battle with the Germans at the station, recalled: "German troops marched on Pskov in five directions (...) They walked like a parade without encountering anywhere serious resistance" The most fierce battle It turned around midnight from the 24th to the 25th of February at the corner of Sergievskaya and Velikiye Luka streets (now Oktyabrsky Prospekt and Sovetskaya Street) towards the station, from where the Germans were coming. Here is how their participant V.Lemzal described these events: "Red Guards in the streets were in small groups, defended bravely and almost all lay down. The last words I heard were: "Comrades, we can only die!", Which they did honorably. " At the same time, the 7th Latvian Rifle Regiment, which was retreating from the Valkov, broke through the city, partially already occupied by the Germans.
By 2 o'clock in the morning the Germans had completely captured Pskov. In the summary of the German bid, which was signed on February 25 by General Ludendorff, it was reported: "South of Pskov, our troops came across strong resistance. In a fierce battle, they smashed the enemy, the city was captured. On February 26, Posern reported to Petrograd about the capture of Pskov: "The city was taken by small forces of the Germans. Our misfortune is in the absence of training, and also that no orders can change the pre-prepared mood - not to continue the war. " February 27, "Pravda" reported: "Pskov was occupied by small forces of the Germans. The city could have been defended if resistance had been given. Unfortunately, the soldiers at first gave in to panic and did not take any steps to repulse "
At the same time, on February 24, at about 10 o'clock in the evening, the Pskov Red Guards retreating to Pescas blew up the pyroxylin warehouse, located about 5 km from the city (more precisely, not the warehouse itself, it was empty, but 2 cars) just at the moment when the German entered it Battalion, and thus destroyed 270 soldiers of the German army (30 officers, 34 non-commissioned officers and 206 soldiers). The organizer of the explosion was a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Ivanov. As the participant of those events described the consequences of the explosion, Ilya Ivanov, who was there 10-12 hours after the explosion, found the undeployed wounded and the unclean corpses of the Germans: "The German troops chose the shortest route to Pskov: Since the highway is all packed up with a train, they went from Poklonnaya Hill along an ancient road to Pskov .The storages were pyroxylene (there were four of them - large, wooden ones), they were empty, I personally inspected them myself. , In which it was possible to put a 2-storey house and not to see it.Inside the entrance hall-the barracks of the sentry room, from which nothing remained, all blown up. Two exploding cars exploded, so blown up that only one axle from the car was blown away Meters to 300-400, while others are generally unknown where there were about 1200 Germans near the place of the explosion.Two groups of 600 people each were 200-500 meters away from each other.The first group that approached the checkpoint was completely destroyed, because From the entrance to the blown up wagons was 60-80 meters. From the first group of 200-300 meters from the blast site, there were 6-8 ripped horses. "Judging by the plan presented by Ilya Ivanov, the wagons with explosives stood on the Morozovskaya branch, where it intersects with the ancient road along which the German columns went. Were located in the immediate vicinity of the cars on the southeast side of the Morozovskaya branch, on the other side of the branch there is the Jewish cemetery.The explosion site is located 700 meters to the southeast of the station building of the Pskov station.The German command admitted that as a result of this explosion it lost more Soldiers and officers than during the entire 250-kilometer offensive on Pskov, Ivan Nikolaevich Larionov, who was a witness of the occupation of Pskov, reported that the Germans took many days to collect fragments of bodies in a large area around the blast site. The fighting broke through the retreating Latvian riflemen who occupied the defensive in Lyubiatovo, according to the historian A. Mikhailov, the Germans managed to fully establish control over Pskov only by February 28, according to the historian A.I. Lobachev, the Red Guards for a few days controlled the northeastern suburb of Pskov - Lyubiatovo, as well as defending the foundry-mechanical plant Stein and the convict prison building. Thanks to this military-revolutionary headquarters, it was possible to evacuate the base warehouses of the Northern Front worth 400 million rubles, to save the gold of the Pskov branch of the State Bank.
Having occupied Pskov, the German troops stopped the offensive on this direction on February 25, and only reconnaissance patrols were sent from Pskov. A distance of 5-6 versts from the city sent sentries of 10-15 people, the Germans dug around the city trenches and installed barbed wire. They did not even occupy the station Zapskovye 2 versts from the city - with it kept the connection red in Gdove. The garrison of the city consisted of several regiments of the 78th Division (mostly elderly reservists from the Landwehr), the headquarters were located in the building of the real school. February 26 Posern reported: "I do not have exact information about the present situation of the Germans. The first station from Pskov - Toroshino - also with us. This is 20 miles from Pskov. " Pozern requested reinforcements, and the secretary of the People's Commissar of Defense, Kostashevsky, replied: "We form the Red Guard detachments and send them to the front. In the direction of Pskov we are sent by a detachment of Pekhlevanov, with whom we establish contact. " In the Soviet operational report for February 27-28 it was said that "the Germans from Pskov did not go out for the purpose of offensive operations ... the advance of the Germans from Pskov is not noticed, despite the tempting possibility of seizing our artillery and the carts that followed the Pskov highway on Housewarming"
On the morning of February 25, the anti-Soviet part of the inhabitants (according to Lemzal, mainly the Jewish bourgeoisie, Halytser-Chernovitsky on the contrary calls them "primordial merchants"), they organized a solemn meeting with the Germans who came in with bread and salt. "It's like a bright holiday with us today," they said. V.Lemzal compares the enthusiasm that reigned on the streets of Pskov, with the enthusiasm of the first days of the February revolution. Immediately began a brisk trade shops, which threw the starving Germans. The Red Guards, Bolsheviks, and Soviet leaders were issued to the Germans - only 140 people. All of them were shot. The Germans immediately posted up orders that imposed a curfew and demanded that, before February 28, they surrender all their weapons. At the same time, the occupying German authorities allowed Russian officers to wear uniforms. Already on the morning of the 25th, officers appeared in the streets wearing epaulets that demanded honor from the soldiers, and in case of disobedience they tried to seek help from German patrols. "The Germans in Pskov are about four thousand ... Russian officers are wearing shoulder straps and amazes with their quantitative composition, willingly registering with the Germans, disarming the Russian soldiers and the population" - reported on the 27th date in the Soviet intelligence report. In the city, the former city Duma, headed by the Cadet Vladimirov, was restored.
On February 26, a compulsory order was issued for the local residents to surrender the weapons to the commandant's office by February 28. The city was declared a state of siege, a curfew was introduced, rumors and newspapers not permitted by the commandant's office were prohibited. An order was given to register officers and persons liable for service up to 42 years of age with a view to further sending them to Germany. On February 28, several officers were sent.
On the morning of February 26, Soviet diplomats arrived in Pskov, heading for Brest to sign a peace treaty with the Germans. Among them, GV Chicherin and LM Karakhan, who immediately went to the German commandant of the city, to officially inform the arrival of the Soviet delegation. The message "about the arrival of the Bolsheviks" spread with speed of lightning through the city. The London Hotel gathered a huge crowd of hostile people - in the opinion of Bolshevik observers, consisting of former Russian officers, bureaucrats and shopkeepers. Cries were heard: "Death to the Bolsheviks!" The crowd tried to break into the hotel. For their part, in the cities that remained under the control of the Bolsheviks, repressive measures were taken against the bourgeoisie.
At the news of the fall of Pskov, hastily assembled heterogeneous formations were sent from Petrograd to the Pskov direction (the 1st Red Army Regiment, the 6th and 7th Latvian Rifle Regiments, the Red Guard troops of the Petrograd factories, the armored train, the battery of the Mikhailovsky Artillery School and the 2nd Machine-gun reserve regiment - only 1,300 bayonets, 87 machine guns, 63 mounted reconnaissance vehicles, 4 three-inch guns.). They formed the so-called Pskov detachments under the command of the colonel of the General Staff of Jordan Pehlivanov. The captain of the General Staff, AD Zagrebin, who was in the detachments of Pekhlivanov, characterizes them as "real gangs" and "rabble", completely untrained and devoid of elementary discipline. The chief of staff of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, General Bonch-Bruevich, set before him the task of taking back Pskov, but this task proved to be completely beyond the capacity. Having completed the concentration in Luga, Pehlivanov detachments occupied the Toroshino station on February 28, and on March 1 they started attacking the small German groups that were around the city, who did not expect the enemy to appear. They managed to destroy the outpost of several people at the station Chernyakovich and the crossing, to smash an ambush of 150 cyclists from the ambush, to shoot down two airplanes. In the morning of March 4, the Germans themselves went on the offensive and threw the Reds away from Chernyakovich station. After that, there were reports of the signing of peace in Brest-Litovsk.
By the time of the cessation of hostilities, the number of Pskov detachments reached up to 3,620 people, including 2,100 bayonets with 97 machine guns and 4 guns and 113 checkers. The most combat-capable part of the detachment Pekhlivanov considered the 6th Tukums Latvian Regiment.
According to the letter of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty signed on March 3, Pskov was to remain part of Soviet Russia, but in fact the Germans were not going to clear any of the occupied territories. The demarcation line ran 10 km. From Pskov between the stations of Toroshino and Chernyakovich, the German and Soviet sides were separated by a 10-kilometer neutral strip. On the German side, the neutral strip passed along the line of Hotitsa - Portyannikovo - Silovo - Panino - Koziy Brod - Fox hills - Lyubiatovo - Agricultural school - Crosses - Chereko. Today, all these settlements are located within the boundaries of modern Pskov, except for Hotits and Cheryokh. The Soviet historical tradition, as well as the Russian historian PA Nikolaev, explains the halt of the Germans in the Pskov region by the resistance of the Red detachments. A.Ganin believes, on the one hand, that in fact the detachments defending Petrograd, including the Pskov direction, fulfilled their task: they showed that on the Eastern Front there is still someone to resist the German offensive, and if this offensive develops, It will meet, even if insufficient, but still organized resistance. In the end, according to Ganin, the power of Lenin, and with it the independence of the country were saved. On the other hand, in his opinion, the relative success of the Pskov detachments is explained by the fact that the Germans did not take the enemy seriously and did not take any active actions in the Pskov direction.
The events of the end of February 1918 in Pskov became one of the plots for the poem "The Battle of the Ice" by Konstantin Simonov
||Дата: Среда, 15.03.2017, 08:50 | Сообщение # 2|
|Occupation by the Germans of Narva|
On the Narva direction, the Germans (the Northern Corps) launched the offensive on 25 February. On March 3 they approached the city. The city was defended by detachments of the Narva military station: the joint Red Army detachment Klyave-Klyavina, a group of international Hungarians led by Belaya Kun, a detachment under the command of Vladimir Azin and a detachment of seamen Dybenko, under the general command of Dybenko, appointed commandant of Narva. Dybenko insisted on offensive tactics, contrary to the opinion of military specialists offering defense, and on the morning of March 3 led his sailors to attack the Germans approaching by rail. After a counter battle between the stations of Vaivara and Korf, the detachment Dybenko under threat of detour retreated, and about 15 hours the Germans reached the heights about 5 km to the NW from the city, where they were for some time stopped. But the endurance of Dybenko's people was enough for only a few hours: in the evening the Reds "without pressure from the Germans" fled from Narva. The Germans, not knowing about it, entered the city only the next morning.
The red units that fled from Narva concentrated in Yamburg, where General DP Parsky, who had arrived from Petrograd, tried to organize them. He even nurtured plans for a counterattack on Narva (knowing from telephone conversations that the Germans had not entered it yet). However, the sailors not only refused categorically to return to Narva, but also fled to Gatchina, and on the train Dybenko was Parsky, who managed to get out and return to Yamburg. At 22 hours on March 4, he telegraphed:
"Narva is busy with extremely weak forces. (...) All the sailors' echelons went with the commissar Dybenko Gatchina. Defend the position of Yamburg was not averse. I send the Red Guards units from Yamburg to follow the sailors. Following the example of the latter, the Red Guards began to hesitate; I have no more armed forces at hand, so I took off the artillery from the position, gave the order to send the remaining echelons with the property, I myself leave in a quarter of an hour. "
Yamburg was thus abandoned and returned only the next day, when reinforcements came to the rescue of Parnsky. The Germans did not enter it and stayed at all in Narva. According to Parsky, their forces were small - "no more than a few battalions and two regiments of cavalry, and in the city itself is a detachment of an infantry battalion, one cavalry unit, armored cars and samokatchikov." At that time the Treaty of Brest was already in force, and the Germans stopped at the Pskov-Narva line.
Dybenko, fearful of the responsibility for abandoning Narva, fled with his sailors from Gatchina further and eventually was found in Samara, from where he was sent to Moscow and given to a tribunal. For the abandonment of Narva, he was removed from the post of Commissar of the Navy and expelled from the party.
The appearance of interpretation of events as "victory under Pskov and Narva"
The interpretation of the events of February 1918 as a "victory under Pskov and Narva" was proposed personally by Joseph Stalin in 1938. For the first time, she appears in a material published in Izvestia on February 16, 1938, under the heading "To the 20th anniversary of the Red Army and the Navy. Theses for propagandists. " The corresponding thesis was as follows: "A decisive rebuff was given under Narva and the Pskov German occupiers. Their advance on revolutionary Petrograd was suspended. The day of rebuff to the troops of German imperialism was the day of the jubilee of the young Red Army. "
In September of the same year, it was fixed in the chapter of the Short Course on the History of the CPSU, published in Pravda, in almost the same terms as the preceding text:
The armed intervention of the German imperialists caused a powerful revolutionary upsurge in the country. In reply to the cry "Socialist Fatherland in Danger!" Thrown by the Party and the Soviet government, the working class responded by reinforcing the formation of units of the Red Army. Young detachments of the new army - the army of the revolutionary people - heroically repelled the onslaught of the German predator armed to the teeth. Narva and the Pskov German occupants were resolutely rebuffed. Their advance to Petrograd was suspended. Day of rebuff to the troops of German imperialism - February 23 - was the birthday of the young Red Army.
A much more decisive formulation was given by Stalin in an order of February 23, 1942:
Young detachments of the Red Army, first joined the war, defeated the German invaders near Pskov and Narva on February 23, 1918. That is why the day of February 23, 1918 was declared the birthday of the Red Army.
This version was supported for many years by state propaganda in the USSR. And now (2011) this version is mentioned as real in some journalistic works.
Defender of the Motherland Day in Russia
Since 2002, according to the decision of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, February 23 is a non-working day in Russia and this date is celebrated as the Defender of the Fatherland Day in accordance with the Federal Law of the Russian Federation "On Days of Military Glory (Victory Days) of Russia" (1995).
On March 24, 2006, the State Duma decided to exclude from the official description of the holiday in the law the words "The Day of the Victory of the Red Army over the Kaiser's troops of Germany (1918)", and also to state in this law the concept of "defender" in the title of this holiday in the singular (according to, As this holiday by that time was already called according to item 112 of the Labor code of the Russian Federation).
Today, February 23 in Russia is an informal people's festival of men, which is celebrated as colleagues in their collectives, and in families, and is of a massive nature. On this day, also congratulate women - veterans of the Great Patriotic War, women military personnel. One of the traditions of the holiday in Moscow is a solemn ceremony at the walls of the Kremlin, laying wreaths at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The President of Russia, the heads of both houses of parliament, the military leadership, representatives of other branches of government, leaders of political parties, church hierarchs arrive in the Alexander Garden. After a minute of silence, the national anthem sounds, then the company of honor guard passes with a solemn march. In the evening, the country's top leadership attends a festive concert dedicated to the Day of Defender of the Fatherland. Also in the evening in Moscow and in many other cities of Russia a festive salute is being made. In Pskov there is a parade at the monument dedicated to the first battles of the Red Army. The reconstruction of the events of February 1918 is arranged.
For the majority of citizens of Russia, Defender of the Fatherland Day is an important and significant date. According to the poll of the Foundation "Public Opinion", held in February 2013, so say 77 percent of the respondents.
Defender of the Motherland Day in other CIS countries
Defender of the Fatherland Day is celebrated not only in Russia.
Defender of the Fatherland Day is also celebrated in Kyrgyzstan (it is a non-working day), in Belarus and in Transnistria. In Belarus, it continues to be a working day.
Day of Defenders of the Motherland and the Armed Forces in Belarus
In Belarus, the basis of the holiday is the date of February 23, 1918: on February 23, 2008, the 90th anniversary of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Belarus was celebrated at the state level.
Traditionally, on February 23, President Alexander Lukashenko lays a wreath at the monument on Victory Square in Minsk on the Day of Defenders of the Fatherland. The ceremony is attended by senior officials of the country, as well as representatives of foreign diplomatic missions. Wreaths and flowers to the Eternal Flame are imposed on representatives of the Orthodox and Catholic churches, veterans' organizations. The head of state and everyone present commemorate the victims with a minute of silence.
Day of the Defender and Day of Education of the Armed Forces of Tajikistan
In Tajikistan, February 23 is celebrated as the Defender's Day and the Day of Education of the Armed Forces.
In January 1992, by the Decree of the President of Tajikistan, the Defense Committee of the Republic of Tajikistan was formed, subordinate to which are units and formations stationed on the territory of the country, military commissariats, headquarters, civil defense formations, military departments of military schools, military and legal bodies, parts of provision and maintenance. The process of forming the national guard was initiated. December 18, 1992 in accordance with the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of Tajikistan, the Ministry of Defense of Tajikistan was established and this was the beginning of the process of creating the national Armed Forces. The first units, units and formations were formed on the basis of the detachments of the Popular Front.
On February 23, 1993, for the first time since independence, in the midst of the civil war in Dushanbe, a military parade of the Armed Forces took place. Taking into account the fact that historically February 23 was marked as the day of the defender, the country's leadership decided to declare this day the Day of the Armed Forces of Tajikistan.
Defender of the Fatherland Day in Kyrgyzstan
In Kyrgyzstan, the Day of the Fatherland Defender is celebrated on February 23. This day became a non-working holiday, thanks to the Labor Code, adopted in 2004 (Article 113). In Bishkek, a solemn construction of the personnel of the Bishkek garrison is held on the square in front of the city hall on this day, after which servicemen, accompanied by the orchestra, parade to the main square of the capital Ala-Too.
Day of Defender of the Fatherland in South Ossetia
February 23 is an official holiday in South Ossetia. Holiday Defender of the Fatherland Day is loved and honored. On February 23, the leadership and the public of South Ossetia pay tribute to the veterans who served in the Soviet Army during the Great Patriotic War, as well as all those who rose to defend the Fatherland in the 1990s, and continue to defend the Republic. On February 23, South Ossetia is honored as servicemen of the Ministry of Defense, OMON, other units, as well as employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Throughout the Republic, memorable evenings, meetings with the defenders of the Fatherland take place during the week. February 23 is officially a non-working day in South Ossetia.
Day of the Defender of the Fatherland in the Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublika
In Transnistria, the Day of Defender of the Fatherland is a state holiday and celebrated on February 23. The main festive events are held in Tiraspol. The President of the republic and the heads of the security agencies take part in them.
February 23 in Armenia
In Armenia, this day is not a state holiday. However, on February 23, solemn events are held in Yerevan and Gyumri on the Day of Defender of the Fatherland. Armenian Defense Minister, Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to Armenia, high-ranking officers and servicemen of the Armed Forces of Armenia and Russia, representatives of diplomatic departments visit the Victory Park in Yerevan. They lay wreaths at the monument to the Unknown Soldier, paying tribute to the memory of those killed in the defense of the Fatherland. After that, Armenian and Russian servicemen pass through the park in a parade order. In the city of Gyumri, the cultural and business center "House of Moscow", with the assistance of the Department of Foreign Economic and International Relations of the Moscow Government, conducts a large concert of military-patriotic songs performed by well-known Armenian singers and musicians by February 23. Local residents, servicemen of the 102nd Russian military base, deployed in Gyumri, gather in the city's drama theater.
February 23 in Abkhazia
February 23 in Abkhazia is celebrated, but officially it is not a public holiday. On this day, servicemen of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Abkhazia, along with servicemen of the 7th Russian military base stationed in Abkhazia, and border guards of the Frontier Directorate of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation lay wreaths and flowers at the Monument to the Unknown Soldier on the Quay of the Mahajirs in Sukhum. Wreaths are also laid on the fallen 1992-1993 people of the Abkhaz people in the Patriotic War. And Russian peacekeepers who died while serving in the zone of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict. Abkhazian and Russian soldiers lay flowers in the Park of Glory and the obelisk to the fallen peacekeepers.
February 23 in Ukraine
In Ukraine, the Day of the Armed Forces of Ukraine is officially celebrated on December 6. However, in 1999, an edict was issued, according to which February 23 was called the Day of Defender of the Fatherland. This day is considered a "men's day", as March 8 - "women's day." As on December 6, this day is not a day off.
In 2008, the President of Ukraine, Victor Yushchenko, called the "National Day of Defenders of the Fatherland" January 29 ("The Day of Heroes' Crusade") and supported the initiatives on the state establishment of such a memorable day (in January 2008, the Cherkassy regional organization of the Ukrainian People's Party invited the president to postpone the celebration of the Day Defender of the Fatherland from February 23 to January 29). Despite this, on February 23, remaining a working day, continues to be widely celebrated as "Defender of the Fatherland Day".
In 2013, the sociological group "Rating" conducted a public opinion poll about the attitude towards the holiday on February 23. It turned out that for 41% of those surveyed on February 23 - this is a good reason to make pleasant to close to men (women are more likely to think so). For 39%, it is a holiday of men who have or had to do with the army (as men often think). At the same time, 12% consider it a political holiday from the Soviet past, and 7% consider it a regular day. According to the results of the study, most Ukrainians perceive February 23 as a holiday.
October 14, 2014, President of Ukraine Peter Poroshenko canceled the celebration of the Day of Defender of the Fatherland in Ukraine on February 23. Instead, a new holiday was established - the Day of the Defender of Ukraine, which is celebrated on October 14. October 14, the church celebrates the Protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and in Ukraine this day is also traditionally celebrated the Day of Ukrainian Cossacks and the anniversary of the creation of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.
Moreover, on February 23, Defender of the Fatherland Day was declared a holiday day in the territory of the self-proclaimed People's Republic of DNR and LNR.
23 February in Latvia
After the proclamation of Latvia's independence, the day of February 23, like other Soviet holidays, ceased to be an official holiday. On February 23, the participants of the Great Patriotic War, former servicemen of the Armed Forces of the USSR, participants in armed conflicts, graduates of Soviet higher military schools continue to celebrate the day of February. So, in Daugavpils traditionally this day at a memorial in park Dubrovina townspeople gather to honor memory of the military men who were lost in fights for a city. In Riga, February 23 lay wreaths at the monument to the Liberators of Latvia and Riga in Pardaugava.
February 23 in Estonia
On this day, employees of the Embassies of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus in Estonia, representatives of Estonian veteran and public organizations take part in the ceremony of laying wreaths and flowers at the foot of the Soldier-Liberator monument (Bronze Soldier) at the Military Cemetery in Tallinn.
Criticism of the holiday in the post-Soviet Russian society and proposals on the alternative filling of the historical significance of the holiday
Historians S. V. Volkov and A. B. Zubov drew attention to the absurdity that a legacy from the Soviet times of Russia inherited the holiday, which is called the Day of Defender of the Fatherland, but celebrated on the same date when Russia experienced, in their opinion, a national disgrace And humiliation, because it was on this day in 1918 that Russia, led by the Bolsheviks, capitulated to the German Empire. On February 23, a meeting of the Central Committee of the RSDLP took place, at which the ultimatum demanded by the German command was accepted completely and unconditionally, after which the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR reported this to the German government. There were no other important events in Soviet Russia that day. In S.Volkov's opinion, for the celebration of Defender of the Fatherland Day, one should choose one of the many truly glorious dates in Russian military history, and the continuation of the celebration of this Soviet holiday in post-Soviet Russia equates "good with evil, executioners with victims, heroes with criminals."
A number of historians, publicists and public figures proposed to mark on this day the beginning of the "Ice campaign" of the Volunteer Army, which began on the night of February 9 (22) on February 10 (23), 1918. In their opinion, the campaign of volunteers marked the beginning of the revival of the Russian army from revolutionary chaos and gave hope for the revival of the Russian state.
At different times, Valeria Novodvorskaya, representatives of the Chechen diaspora, protodeacon Andrei Kuraev spoke out against this holiday.
On February 23, the contemporary Russian historian A. V. Ganin does not agree with the critics of the Day of Defender of the Fatherland. He notes that it was on February 23 that the mass mobilization of the Petrograd proletariat in the ranks of the Red Army began. By February 27, about 13,000 people had joined the Red Army in Petrograd. Mobilization together with the agreement of the Council of People's Commissars to the peace treaty with Germany led to the arrest of the aggressor. Ganin believes that the date of February 23 in Russia, as the Defender of the Fatherland Day, is fully justified.