||Дата: Вторник, 21.03.2017, 09:56 | Сообщение # 1|
|April 15 - Day of the expert on electronic warfare of Russia (professional holiday)|
The electronic warfare (EW) is a type of armed struggle, during which radio waves (radio interference) are exposed to electronic means of enemy command and control systems, communications and reconnaissance for the purpose of changing the quality of military information circulating in them, protecting their systems from similar influences, and changing the conditions (Properties of the medium) of propagation of radio waves.
Professional holiday specialist on electronic warfare in Russia is celebrated on April 15.
Objects and objectives
The objects of influence in the course of REB are important radioelectronic objects (elements of control systems of troops, forces and weapons using radio facilities), violation or disruption of their work will lead to a decrease in the effectiveness of the enemy's use of their weapons.
The targets of radio interference are radio links, control, guidance, navigation. The interference affects, mainly, the receiving part of radio equipment. Active and passive means are used to create radio interference. Active means include those that generate the radiation using the principle of generation (for example, transmitters, interference stations). Passive means - use the principle of reflection (reradiation) (for example, dipole and angle reflectors, etc.).
At present, REB is a set of coordinated actions and actions of troops that are conducted in order to:
The reduction of the effectiveness of command and control of troops and the use of enemy weapons;
Ensuring the given effectiveness of command and control;
The use of their means of destruction.
The achievement of these goals is carried out within the framework of the defeat of the systems of command and control of the troops and weapons, communication and reconnaissance of the enemy by changing the quality of information circulating in them, the speed of information processes, parameters and characteristics of electronic means; Protection of their command and control systems, communications and reconnaissance from defeat, as well as protected information about weapons, military equipment, military facilities and the actions of troops from the technical means of intelligence of foreign states (the enemy) by providing specified requirements for information and information processes in automated control systems, communications And intelligence, as well as the properties of electronic means.
In the course of the REB: defeat is provided by deliberate exposure to various types of radiation to electronic means, channels for obtaining and transmitting information, special software and technical impact on the computer's electronic means; Their control, communication and reconnaissance systems are protected from similar enemy influences, as well as from unintentional exposure to radiation arising from the joint use of electronic means; Protection of protected information is carried out by their concealment or (and) misleading the enemy regarding their actual content. The objects of EW are information carriers (fields and waves of different nature, fluxes of charged particles), their propagation medium and electronic means and systems. Thus, REB is an integral part, the technical basis of information warfare.
Components of EW
The components of EW are electronic suppression and electronic protection.
Radioelectronic suppression is a set of measures and actions to disrupt (disrupt) the work or reduce the effectiveness of combat use by the enemy of radio electronic systems and means by interfering with their receiving devices with electronic noise. Includes radio, radio, optical-electronic and hydro-acoustic suppression. Radioelectronic suppression is provided by the creation of active and passive interference, the use of false targets, traps and other means.
Radioelectronic protection is an integral part of the electronic warfare aimed at ensuring the stable operation of radio electronic means in the conditions of the impact of intentional radio interference of the enemy, electromagnetic radiation of weapons of functional damage, electromagnetic and ionizing radiations arising from the use of nuclear weapons, and in the presence of unintentional radio interference. The basis of REZ are: ensuring electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of RES, a set of organizational and technical measures aimed at ensuring noise immunity of RES in conditions of impact on them of unintentional interference; Protection of RES from deliberate interference, a complex of organizational and technical measures aimed at ensuring noise immunity of RES in conditions of impact on them of intentional interference; Protection of RES from electromagnetic and ionizing radiation, a complex of organizational and technical measures to ensure the reliability of the operation of RES in the context of exposure to radiation, leading to functional damage to the element base; Protection against false signals, a complex of organizational and technical measures aimed at preventing the enemy from entering the systems and media (messages) when sending false signals to them.
Radio electronic reconnaissance
Radio-electronic reconnaissance - gathering of intelligence information on the basis of reception and analysis of electromagnetic radiation. Radio-electronic reconnaissance uses both intercepted signals from communication channels between people and technical means, as well as signals from working radars, communication stations, radio interference stations and other radio electronic means.
Complex technical control
Complex technical control - control over the state of functioning of its radio electronic means and their protection against the enemy's technical reconnaissance means. It is carried out in the interests of electronic protection. Includes radio, radio, photographic, visual and optical control, as well as monitoring the effectiveness of information protection from leakage through technical channels during the operation of transmission and processing facilities.
Electromagnetic impact (impulse), disabling electronic, communication and power equipment of the enemy. The damaging effect is achieved by induction currents. First noted in nuclear explosions in the atmosphere.
At present, magnetrons are used to create a damaging pulse. Electromagnetic damage systems are in service in the US and other NATO countries.
For the first time, electronic warfare was used by the Russian Navy during the Russo-Japanese War. On April 15, 1904, during the artillery shelling that the Japanese squadron conducted along the internal raid of Port Arthur, the radio station of the Russian battleship Pobeda and the coastal post Zolotaya Gora, through the creation of deliberate jamming, seriously impeded the transmission of telegrams of enemy reconnaissance ships (apparently the first in World by chance).
Nevertheless, radio facilities at that time were mainly used to provide communication, to identify enemy communication channels and to intercept information transmitted by them. Preference was given to the interception of radio programs, and not to their suppression. However, during the First World War, radio interference was used occasionally to disrupt radio communications between the headquarters of the armies, corps and divisions and between warships. At the same time, special radio interference stations appeared in the German army at that time.
In the period between world wars, radio communication is actively developing, radio direction finding, radio control and radiolocation appear. As a result, the concept of the management and interaction of land forces, the Air Force and the Navy is fundamentally changing. All this led to the further development of methods and techniques for countering the enemy's radio electronic means.
During the Second World War, the participating countries actively used the means of radio electronic and hydroacoustic suppression. Special units and radio interference units were formed and widely used to provide combat operations. A great deal of experience was gained in conducting reconnaissance and creating radio interference, as well as radio electronic protection.
On a large scale, electronic warfare was used in the summer of 1944, when the second front was opened in Normandy.
Preparing for the landing meeting, the Germans concentrated on the northern coast of Europe a huge number of detection stations that controlled all the surrounding space and every piece of land. With artillery fire and air strikes, the Allies destroyed about 80 percent of the German stations before the landing, and about 700 interference stations were installed to suppress the remaining enemy assets.
A grandiose hoax began: the All-Channel aircraft shuttled continuously over the Channel Channel, creating false targets with reflectors and special signals, here and there. Baffled German pilots were completely exhausted by a lot of false alarms.
With a huge number of false signals and targets for more than four hours, the Allies imitated the movement of the troops in the direction of Boulogne and eventually forced the Germans to concentrate all their forces in the Boulogne and Calais areas. And at that time the Allied troops landed in Normandy, where the defense of the Germans was so weakened that of the 2,127 ships participating in the assault, the Germans managed to sink only 6.
In the post-war period, the development of electronic warfare means continues. New means of radio interference from shipborne and airborne bases are emerging.
In modern wars and military conflicts, the role of electronic warfare continues to grow. The development and adoption of high-precision and high-technology weapons for the arming of many states leads to the emergence of new radio-electronic impact facilities. The use of anti-radar missiles significantly reduces the survivability of modern radio-electronic means (radar, air defense systems) built on the basis of active radar facilities. The widespread use of satellite reconnaissance, communications and navigation systems necessitates their neutralization, including through electronic suppression. Portable means of electronic intelligence and interference are being developed to deal with new means of communication and navigation, search and neutralization of radio fuses and other remote detonation devices. EW assets have been given the possibility of system-software impact on the automated control system and other computer systems.
EM weapon systems are installed on the US Navy radioelectronic combat aircraft - EA-18 Growler. The weapons can suppress the enemy's electronic communications systems and, if necessary, destroy them, as well as disable enemy electronic systems, including air defense guidance systems and electronic control elements of enemy aircraft. For the first time, Growler was used in the NATO operation in Libya in 2011.
An anti-homing missile defense system is equipped with the NATO F-35 fighter. The system is based on the remote destruction of electronic missile guidance systems by a directed electromagnetic pulse.
Personal defense systems (airborne defense complexes, BKO) -BCO Talisman are equipped with MiG-29 fighters and Su-25 air force fighters of the Belarusian Air Force and Su-27UBM2 aircraft of the Air Force of Kazakhstan. The action of the "Talisman" BKO is based on the destruction of the work of the monopulse direction finding, which leads to a disruption of the guidance of an air defense or guided missile.
Radio-electronic struggle in Russia
December 14, 1942 - Reported People's Commissar of the Interior of the USSR L.P. Beria to the Chairman of the State Defense Committee of the USSR IV Stalin on the need to create in the Red Army "Service for driving down German radio stations operating on the battlefield"
December 16, 1942 I. Stalin signed the Decree of the State Defense Committee No. GFCS 2633 cc "On the organization of the department for the management of the radio stations of interfering action as part of the Directorate of Military Intelligence of the General Staff of the Red Army"
September 23, 1953 in the General Staff of the USSR Armed Forces, the post of Assistant to the Chief of the General Staff on Radio Technical Intelligence and Interference
November 4, 1953 - the apparatus of the Assistant to the Head of the General Staff for Radio Technical Intelligence and Interference
June 26, 1960 Office of the Assistant NSAH on radio countermeasures was transformed into the 9th Department of the General Staff (the fight against the enemy's electronic warfare).
April 22, 1964 - 9 department GSH is included in the GOU GSH.
January 22, 1965 - 9 department was withdrawn from the GOU General Staff and was identified as the 9th Department of the General Staff (the fight against the enemy's radio electronic means).
July 8, 1968 - on the basis of the 9th department of the General Staff and the 8th Department of the General Staff Department, the Service for Radioelectronic Counteraction of the General Staff was formed.
April 8, 1972 - the service of electronic countermeasures of the General Staff was reorganized into the 5th Directorate of the General Staff.
January 22, 1974 - 5 management of the General Staff was reorganized into 1 management of the General Directorate of the General Staff.
May 13, 1977 - on the basis of the 1st department, the EWS Directorate was organized.
June 6, 1986 - Control of the REB GSH is transformed into the Directorate of the REB of the Main Directorate of the Automated Control and Automation System of the General Staff of the USSR.
June 3, 1989 - in connection with the disbandment of the Main Directorate of the Automated Control System and the Radio-electronic Survey of the General Staff, the Directorate of the Radio-electronic Survey of the General Staff was put into independent management.
May 3, 1999 - the Day of the EW specialist was established, which is celebrated annually on April 15.
January 19, 2009 - the day of formation of the Armed Forces of the RF Armed Forces
According to experts, if by 2020 the army and navy will have to switch to the latest weapons by 70-75%, then the strategic potential of the troops of the radio-electronic front will be updated by 100%.
Ershov AG, Head of the Radio Mixing Department of the 5 GU MO (1950-1953).
Gerasimov AV, Lieutenant-General of Artillery, Chief of the Radio Resistance Service (1953-1954).
Shelimov NP, Lieutenant-General, Chief of the Radio Resistance Service (1954-1960).
Stemasov SI, Lieutenant-General, Chief of the Radio Mixing Service of the 5th GU MO (1960-1964).
Gorbachev Yu.E., Colonel, Head of the Radio Mixing Service of the 5 GU MO (1964-1967).
Paliy AI, Lieutenant-General, Chief of the Electronic Countermeasures Service (1968-1975).
Makarenkov NA, Major-General, Chief of the Service of Electronic Countermeasures (1975-1986).
Kosenko E.V., Lieutenant-General, Head of the Department of REB GSh (1986-1992).
AA Bystrov, Lieutenant-General, Chief of the Department of Radio-Electronic Equipment of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (1992-1998).
Volodin V.N., Lieutenant-General, Head of the Department of Radio-Electronic Equipment of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (1998-2001).
Osin A. V., Head of the Department of REB GSh RF Armed Forces (2001-2007)
Ivanov O. A., commander of the Russian Air Force REB (2007-2011)
MVDoslovlov, Colonel, Chief of the Russian Air Force REB (2012-2014)
Lastochkin, Yu.I., Major-General, at the beginning of the beginning. Troops REB RF AF (since 2014)
Development of electronic warfare means
Concern "Sozvezdie" (Voronezh) REB
Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
Research Center for operational and strategic justifications 24 Central Research Institute of Defense Ministry
Scientific Research Center of Radioelectronic Weapons 14 Central Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
Scientific Research Communication Center 34 Central Scientific Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
Federal State Research Center for Radio Electronic Warfare and Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Reducing the Visibility of the RF Ministry of Defense
All-Russian Research Institute "Gradient". (Rostov-on-Don) - REB
CB Svyaz (Rostov-on-Don) - RTR
Training of EW specialists
Voronezh Higher Military Engineering School of Radio Electronics (the first head of the school, founded in 1981, was Major-General V. Paley, then from 1987 to 1993 - Major-General V. Ermolaev)
Military Space Academy named after AF Mozhaisky
Interspecies Center for Training and Combat Use of the Russian Armed Forces Military Forces (training and test)
Training of specialists of the Russian Navy REB
Naval Academy. N. G. Kuznetsova
Higher special officer classes
Naval Institute of Radio Electronics named. A.S. Popova
Preparation of civilian EW specialists
Baltic State Technical University "Voenmeh"
Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation
Ryazan State Radio Engineering University
Moscow Aviation Institute
Taganrog Technological Institute SFedU
Siberian Federal University
Voronezh State Technical University (until 2009)
Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service
St. Petersburg State University of Telecommunications named after prof. M. A. Bonch-Bruevich