||Дата: Среда, 22.03.2017, 04:49 | Сообщение # 1|
|April 18 - The day of the victory of Russian soldiers of Prince Alexander Nevsky over German knights on Lake Peipsi (Ice Battle, 1242) Day of Military Glory of Russia|
The Battle of Ice (German Schlacht auf dem Eise, Latin Prœlium glaciale - "The Ice Battle"), also the battle on Lake Schudach (German Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) - a battle that occurred on the ice of Lake Peipsus on April 5, 1242 in the Julian (old) ) Calendar (Saturday) with the participation of Izhora, Novgorod and Vladimir under the leadership of Alexander Nevsky, on the one hand, and the army of the Livonian Order, on the other hand.
It is the Day of Russian Military Glory - the Day of Victory of Russian soldiers of Prince Alexander Nevsky over German knights on Lake Peipsi (Ice Battle) (celebrated on April 18 in the new calendar).
The beginning of the war
In December 1237, Pope Gregory IX proclaimed the second crusade to Finland, and in June 1238 the Danish king Waldemar II and the master of the united order German Balk agreed on the partition of Estonia and the military operations against Russia in the Baltic with the participation of the Swedes. The Russian lands in these years were weakened by the Mongol invasion.
July 15, 1240, the Swedes were defeated on the Neva, and in August 1240 the Order began a campaign against Russia. Against the Russians were the Livonian knights (the landmaster himself of the Teutonic Order in Livonia, Andreas von Velven did not take part in the battle), the militia of the Derptian bishop Herman, the squad of the Russian prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich, the army of the Estonians and the king's army, mentioned in the Livonian rhymed chronicle and other Western sources (Danish Or Swedish).
The Germans took Izborsk, defeating the Pskovians who came up to help him, 800 of which died, and besieged Pskov, whose gates were opened in a week by their supporters from the Pskov boyars. These events did not prevent the Novgorodians from driving out Alexander to Pereyaslavl-Zalessky in the winter of 1240/1241, and only when the Germans seized the land of the wagons and Koporye and approached Novgorod at a distance of 30 versts, the Novgorodians turned to Yaroslav for the prince. He sent Andrew to them, but they insisted on the candidacy of Alexander. Arriving in Novgorod in 1241, Alexander appeared on Koporye, took him by storm and interrupted most of the garrison. Some of the knights and mercenaries from the local population were taken prisoner, but released, and traitors from among the chudi were executed. In March 1242, Alexander waited for Vladimir help, led by Andrew and took Pskov. The knights concentrated their forces in the Dorpatian bishopric. Alexander then led the troops into the possession of the Order, and after the defeat of the advanced Russian detachments on the main, the main forces retreated to the lake ice for the decisive battle.
Course of battle
Due to the variability of the hydrography of the Peipsi Lake, historians have not been able to pinpoint the place where the Ice Battle took place for a long time. In 1958-1959, on the alleged site of the battle - a section of the Warm Lake located 400 meters west of the modern shore of Cape Sigovets, an archaeological excavation was conducted between the northern extremity and the breadth of the village of Ostrov - under the direction of GN Karayev, by the expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Sciences USSR, however, the findings connecting this place with the battle of 1242, was never found.
The opposing armies met on the morning of April 5, 1242. The moment of the beginning of the battle "Rhymed Chronicle" describes as follows:
"The Russians had many shooters who bravely stepped forward and were the first to take the pressure before the prince's squad"
"The brothers' banner penetrated the ranks of the men who fired, it was audible as swords rang, helmets were cut, as fallen on both sides of the grass"
Thus, the news of the "Chronicles" about the battle order of Russians as a whole is combined with the reports of Russian chronicles on the allocation of a separate infantry regiment to the center of the main forces (since 1185).
In the center the Germans broke through the Russian system:
"But the Germans and the chud were pierced by the pig through the shelves"
But then the troops of the Teutonic Order were surrounded by Russians from the flanks and destroyed, and the other German detachments retreated to avoid the same fate:
"Those who were in the army of the knight brothers were surrounded. The brothers-knights resisted rather stubbornly, but they were overcome there. Some of the darts left the battle, it was their salvation, they had to retreat. "
The Russians chased the runners on the ice for 7 miles. It is noteworthy that unlike the battle of Omowzha in 1234, sources close to the time of the battle do not report that the Germans fell through the ice; According to Donald Ostrowski, this information penetrated into the later sources from the description of the battle of 1016 between Yaroslav and Svyatopolk in the "Tale of Bygone Years" and "The Tale of Boris and Gleb."
In the same year, the Teutonic Order concluded a peace treaty with Novgorod, renouncing all its recent seizures not only in Russia, but also in Letgol. There was also an exchange of prisoners. Only after 10 years the Teutons tried to capture Pskov again.
The scale and significance of the battle
The "Chronicle" says that in the battle for every German, 60 Russians (which is an exaggeration), and the loss of 20 knights killed and 6 prisoners in the battle were accounted for. "The Chronicle of Grandmasters" (sometimes translated as "The Chronicle of the Teutonic Order"), the official history of the Teutonic Order, written much later, speaks of the death of 70 Order Knights (literally "70 Orders of the Lord", "Seuentich Ordens Herenn" ), But unites the dead in the capture of Alexander Pskov and Lake Peipsi.
In the Novgorod first chronicle it is reported: "and Padue Chudi beshchisla, and Nemets 400, and 50 hands yasha and brought to Novgorod" (option: "and pad Chudi beshchisla, Nemets 500, and 50 hands yash and vedodosha in Novgorod").
According to the traditional point of view in Russian historiography, this battle, along with the victories of Prince Alexander over the Swedes (July 15, 1240 on the Neva) and the Lithuanians (in 1245 near Toropets, Lake Zhizza and near Usvyat), was of great importance for Pskov and Novgorod, delaying the pressure of three serious enemies from the west - at a time when the rest of Rus was greatly weakened by the Mongol invasion. In Novgorod, the Battle of the Ice, together with the Neva victory over the Swedes in the XVI century, was recalled at the litanies in all Novgorod churches. In Soviet historiography, the Battle of the Ice was considered one of the biggest battles in the history of the German knight aggression in the Baltic region, and the number of troops on Lake Peipsi was estimated at 10,000-12,000 among the Order and 15,000-17,000 Novgorodians and their allies (the last figure Corresponds to the estimate by Heinrich of Latvia of the numbers of Russian troops in describing their campaigns in the Baltic States in the 1210s-1220s), that is, approximately at the same level as in the Battle of Grunwald (1410) - up to 11 thousand people in the Order and 16th- 17 thousand people in the Polish-Lithuanian army. The Chronicle, as a rule, reports the small number of Germans in those battles that they lost, but even in it the Ice Slaughter is unequivocally described as the defeat of the Germans, in contrast to, for example, the Battle of Rakovor (1268).
As a rule, the minimum estimates of the strength of troops and losses of the Order in the battle correspond to the historical role assigned to the given battle by the concrete investigators and to the figure of Alexander Nevsky as a whole (for more details, see Evaluations of Alexander Nevsky). In general, VO Klyuchevsky and MN Pokrovsky did not mention the battle in their works.
The English researcher J. Fennel believes that the significance of the Battle of the Ice (and the Battle of the Neva) is greatly exaggerated: "Alexander did only what the numerous defenders of Novgorod and Pskov did before him and what many did after him - namely, they rushed to protect long-held and vulnerable Borders from units of invaders ". This opinion is also shared by the Russian professor IN Danilevsky. He notes, in particular, that the battle was inferior in scale to the Battle of Saul (1236), in which the Order's master and 48 knights were killed by the Lithuanians, and the battle at Rakovoi; Modern events sources, even the Battle of the Neva are described in more detail and give it more importance. However, in Russian historiography, it is not customary to recall defeat at Saul, since the Pskovites took part in it on the side of defeated knights.
German historians believe that, while conducting battles on the western borders, Alexander Nevsky did not pursue any integral political program, but successes in the West gave some compensation for the horrors of the Mongol invasion. Many researchers believe that the scale of the threat the West presented to Russia is exaggerated. On the other hand, LN Gumilev, on the contrary, believed that it was not the Tatar-Mongolian "yoke", namely Catholic Western Europe in the person of the Teutonic Order and the Riga Archbishopric, that posed a mortal threat to the very existence of Rus, and therefore the role of Alexander Nevsky's victories In Russian history is especially great.
German historian Dietmarr Dahlman writes that the Battle of Ice played a role in the formation of the Russian national myth, in which Alexander Nevsky was assigned the role of "defender of Orthodoxy and the land of Russia" in the face of the "Western threat"; Victory in the battle was considered an excuse for the political steps of the prince in the 1250s. The cult of Nevsky in the Stalin era was especially actualized, serving as a kind of clear historical example for the cult of Stalin himself. The cornerstone of Stalin's myth of Alexander Yaroslavich and the Battle of Ice was the film by Sergei Eisenstein (see below).
Memory of the Battle
In 1938 Sergei Eisenstein shot a feature film "Alexander Nevsky", in which the Battle of the Ice was screened. The film is considered one of the most outstanding representatives of historical films. It was he who in many ways formed the view of the battle against the modern viewer.
In 1992, the documentary film "In memory of the past and in the name of the future" was filmed. The film tells about the creation of a monument to Alexander Nevsky for the 750th anniversary of the Battle of the Ice.
The musical accompaniment to the film by Eisenstein, written by Sergei Prokofiev, is a cantata dedicated to the events of the battle.
The poem by Konstantin Simonov "The Battle of the Ice" (1938)
G.N. Karaev, AS Potresov "The Mystery of the Peipsi Lake" (1976)
In the spring of 1942, the German emigrant writer Arnold Zweig in an unpublished essay compared the defeat of the German army with the Battle of Ice.
Monument to Alexander Nevsky squads on Mount Sokolikha
Monument to Alexander Nevsky's squads was established in 1993 on Mount Sokolikha in Pskov, which was removed almost 100 km from the actual place of the battle. Initially, it was planned to create a monument on the island of Voronem, which would be geographically more precise.
Monument to Alexander Nevsky and the Pitched Cross
In 1992, on the territory of the village of Kobylje An ancient settlement of Gdov district in a place as close as possible to the alleged place of the Battle of the Ice, a bronze monument to Alexander Nevsky and a wooden worship cross was installed near the church of Archangel Michael. The Church of the Archangel Michael was created by the Pskovites in 1462. In chronicles with this church, the last mention of the legendary "Crow Stone" (the Pskov chronicle of 1463) is associated. The wooden cross was gradually destroyed under the influence of unfavorable weather conditions. In July 2006, to the 600th anniversary of the first mentioning with. Kobylje An ancient settlement in the Pskov annals is replaced with a bronze one.
The bronze worship cross was cast in St. Petersburg at the expense of the patrons of the Baltic Steel Group (A. V. Ostapenko). The prototype was the Novgorod Alekseevsky cross. Author of the project AA Seleznev. The bronze sign under the guidance of D. Gokhiyayev is cast by the founders of ZAO NTTKT, architects B. Kostygov and S. Kryukov. When the project was implemented, fragments from the lost wooden cross of the sculptor V.Reshchikov were used.