Все форумы

Праздники РФ

Здоровье
Кулинария
Общие вопросы
Клубы авто



Страница 1 из 11
Форум » Forum in English » Holidays Russia » April 28 - International Labor Day (professional holiday)
April 28 - International Labor Day
Дата: Суббота, 25.03.2017, 05:24 | Сообщение # 1
Группа: Модератор

Пол: Мужчина

    
April 28 - International Labor Day (professional holiday)

Occupational safety is a system for preserving the life and health of employees and persons with equal status in the course of their labor activity, including legal, socio-economic, organizational, technical, sanitary and hygienic, therapeutic and preventive, rehabilitation and other measures.

Elements of the system
It should be noted that labor protection can not be identified with safety technology, occupational sanitation, occupational hygiene, because they are elements of labor protection, its constituent parts. Thus, the following elements are included in the system of labor protection (Labor protection does not include industrial safety):

Industrial sanitation is defined as a system of organizational measures and technical means that prevent or reduce the impact on workers of harmful production factors.
Occupational health is characterized as a preventive medicine that studies the conditions and nature of work, their impact on the health and functional state of a person and develops scientific bases and practical measures aimed at preventing harmful and dangerous effects of working environment factors and labor process on workers.
Electrical safety - the state of protection of the worker against harmful and dangerous effects of electric current, electric arc, electromagnetic field and static electricity.
Fire safety - the state of protection of the individual, property of society and the state from fires.
Correction: Fire safety is not within the competence of the Ministry of Labor. This is the sphere of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. The Ministry of Emergency Situations normalizes, controls and checks.

Life safety is the science of comfortable and safe interaction of a person with the technosphere.
Management of labor safety - organization of work to ensure safety, reduce injuries and accidents, occupational diseases, improve working conditions on the basis of a set of tasks to create safe and harmless working conditions. It is based on the application of legislative regulations in the field of labor protection.

Professional risk management is a set of interrelated activities, including measures to identify, assess and reduce occupational risk levels. The Regulation on the professional risk management system is approved by the federal executive body responsible for developing state policy and regulatory and legal regulation in the world of work, taking into account the opinion of the Russian Tripartite Commission for the Regulation of Social and Labor Relations.

Labor protection requirements

State regulatory requirements for labor protection establish rules, procedures and criteria and standards aimed at preserving the life and health of workers in the work process

In accordance with Russian legislation (art. 220 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation), the responsibilities for ensuring safe conditions and OT are assigned to the employer, specifically to the first person of the enterprise. Every employee is obliged (Article 214 of the LC RF):

Observe the requirements of the OT;
Correctly apply means of individual and collective protection;
Undertake training in safe methods and methods of work performance, training in OT, on-the-job training and knowledge of the requirements of the OT;
Immediately notify your immediate supervisor of any situation that threatens the life and health of people, of every accident that has occurred in the workplace, or of a deterioration in your health, including signs of acute occupational disease or poisoning;
Pass mandatory preliminary and periodic medical examinations.
In addition to duties, each employee has rights and guarantees of the right to safe and healthy working conditions, which are formulated in the Russian legislation.

Guarantees of the worker's right to work in conditions that meet the requirements of the OT are, in particular, that:

The state guarantees workers protection of their right to work in conditions that meet the requirements of the OT;
The working conditions under the employment contract must comply with the requirements of the OT;
At the time of suspension of work due to violation of the requirements of the OT, not through the fault of the employee, he retains his place of work and average earnings;
If the employee refuses to perform work in the event of a danger to his life and health, the employer must provide the employee with other work while eliminating such danger. If the provision of other work is impossible, the idle time is paid according to the current legislation;
In the case of failure to provide employees with protective equipment according to the norms, the employer does not have the right to demand from the employee performance of labor duties and is obliged to pay a simple;
Refusal of an employee to perform work due to the danger to his life and health, or from hard work and work with harmful or dangerous working conditions not provided for in the employment contract, does not entail bringing him to disciplinary responsibility;
In the event of damage to the life and health of the employee in the performance of labor duties, compensation for the said harm is carried out in accordance with the current legislation;

Labor protection in Russia
In Russia, the state control and supervision over compliance with labor protection requirements is carried out by the Federal Labor Inspectorate under the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation and federal executive bodies (within its authority).

The Federal Labor Inspectorate controls the implementation of legislation, all norms and regulations on labor protection. The State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance, carried out by the bodies of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, verifies the performance by the enterprises of sanitary and hygienic and sanitary-anti-epidemic norms and rules. State energy supervision under the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation controls the correctness of the installation and operation of electrical installations. State Fire Supervision monitors compliance with fire safety requirements for the design and operation of buildings and premises.

Other supervising bodies are: federal mining and industrial supervision, federal supervision of the Russian Federation for nuclear and radiation safety, state road safety inspectorate, justice agencies, etc.

Features of registration of accidents and occupational diseases
Historically, in the USSR and the Russian Federation, the "feedback system" - distortion of occupational diseases, accidents and even fatal accidents, is highly distorted in the labor protection system. On the basis of the Marxist-Leninist approach to unfavorable changes in health during labor activity as a consequence of exploitation of workers under capitalism in the 1930s at the state level, it was decided to reduce the number of accidents and occupational diseases in the socialist USSR to zero:

In 1936, the 16th Party Conference of the CPSU, which adopted the program for the development of the USSR for many years, regarding the improvement of the system of rendering medical assistance to the population of the country in the first paragraph of the resolution devoted to this topic, prescribed the need to solve the problem of eliminating occupational diseases, and in the second - Reducing industrial injuries. And the "struggle" began. Industrial injuries in 1937 in relation to 1936 at most enterprises decreased by 43-55%. Data on the primary diagnoses "occupational disease" and "occupational traumatism" became secret. From the five-year plan period to the five-year plan, the total number of primary diagnoses "occupational disease" was reduced by 23-25%.

...
For the first time in many years in 1987, in our country, data on the primary diagnoses "occupational disease" for 1985 were published. They were quite impressive - 12700 cases. In the same year, the diagnosis of occupational diseases in the US was delivered in more than 137,000 cases. In this case, individual firms (for example, Ford, Chrysler, etc.) have been fined many millions of dollars for concealing individual cases of professional injuries. Currently, the number of primary diagnoses in the Russian Federation is in the range of 8,000. Thus, the task set by the WCP for "fighting" against occupational diseases was, in fact, solved.

As a matter of fact, in the developed countries, the initial stages of occupational diseases are revealed, the person is removed from harmful working conditions, maintains a relatively high level of physical health, and for a long period of time can work in other, more "easy" occupations, creating a social product. The low level of occupational morbidity in the Russian Federation can be explained by the low quality of periodic medical examinations of the working population, the insufficient qualification of their doctors, and as a consequence, the "tip of the iceberg" is revealed - severe disabling forms of occupational diseases, when a person is practically incapacitated and needs to determine the degree of loss Ability to work and a group of disabilities.

According to Rostrud, which are the most reliable, in 2008, 2,074 concealed occupational accidents were identified. Employers concealed 64 group accidents, 404 fatalities, and 1,332 serious accidents. In this regard, the authors recommended the revival of the pre-revolutionary tradition - legally obligate the interior affairs agencies to investigate accidents at work.

According to the ILO, for one fatal accident there are about 1000 cases, resulting in temporary disability for a period of 3 or more days, and about 2,000 cases with disability for 1 day or more.

The significant difference in the information for the Russian Federation in relation to the number of fatal accidents to the incidence of disability shows that most of the fatal accidents are not recorded.

There is a steady deterioration in working conditions: (in the early 1990s, 18% of working people worked in unfavorable conditions, and in 2011 - more than 30%, according to official data). The frequency of registered occupational diseases in Russia is 40 times "less" than in Denmark, 38 times "less" than in the US, 13 times "less" than in Finland, 7.3 times "less" than in Japan, and In 3.5 times "less" than in Germany. For example, if according to the report of the Minister of Labor of New Zealand in 2012, 17-20 thousand occupational diseases were registered in this country (the population in 2012 was 4.6 million), in the Rostov region in the same year - 66 cases (population 4.2 Million). The quality of medical examinations leaves much to be desired - according to data from 45 employers, 60% noted formal implementation of MIP, and in 31% of cases indicated a low qualification of medical specialists; A third of workers (out of 107 respondents) considered the quality of the medical examination to be poor and 40% satisfactory; Among the doctors who conducted the physical examinations, 40% considered the lack of a quality control system to be the main drawback, half of the respondents noted that they spent the most time during the physical examination to fill out the documents. The quality of physical examinations was satisfied by 4.4% of employers, and a quarter of the workers surveyed found them to be good. However, according to the representative of the centers of occupational pathology, out of 22 million people working in harmful conditions, only 5 million underwent mandatory medical examinations; And the detection of occupational diseases during the passage of medical examinations in commercial medical organizations is two orders of magnitude lower than when passing medical examinations at specialized centers of occupational pathology.

The lack of "feedback" between the creation of safe and healthy working conditions (or vice versa) and the lack of employer liability for damaging the health of workers stimulates the employer to save money on improving working conditions; And the state has exhausted the possibilities of influencing the employer in the current circumstances.

Together, this has led to the fact that the death rate of the able-bodied population of the Russian Federation is 4.5 times higher than in the European Union, and 2.5 times the average for the Russian Federation, and the deteriorating working conditions at most enterprises have reached a dysfunctional, if not critical level.

Improvement of conditions and labor protection in production is the third group of activities ... The relevance of these activities is due to the low technical level of the technologies used and the deterioration of fixed assets; Deterioration of the provision of individual and collective protection of workers; Massive violations of technological and production discipline (often as a consequence of the two above factors); Poor quality control over the condition of the production environment due to a lack of appropriate test equipment and their imperfections.

: ... when we use half-hearted information, it seems to us that we do not have this problem ... and the positive dynamics in this part inspires optimism. ... The reality is often far from our ideas, based on unreliable statistics. ...

... The problem usually comes to light only when the enterprise is liquidated. And at such a moment it turns out that his employees actually suffer from professional pathologies and worked in this enterprise, being sick.
From the impact of harmful and dangerous production factors, more than 150,000 people die annually in the Russian Federation, up to 70% of jobs in extractive industries, metallurgy, timber and woodworking industries belong to industries with heavy and harmful working conditions. However, in these conditions:

: ... The extremely low level of detection of the suspicion of occupational diseases in the MIP (periodic medical examination - prim) is due to the fact that many medical organizations have come to this sphere of activity, which the main goal of MIP is to provide services to employers for money with obtaining Maximum profit for themselves, about prevention, prevention of occupational diseases, they do not think at all. And employers are interested in the maximum reduction of costs and, naturally, in the absence of at least some detectability of occupational diseases. They are played along by the medical organizations, who agree to conduct medical examinations at low prices with zero result. - IV Bukhtiyarov, director of the Institute of Labor Medicine

According to the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation, the losses (fatal accidents, injuries and occupational diseases) are almost equal to the planned increase in the volume of production planned by the government. Despite this, effective legislative and economic mechanisms of the employer's interest in providing healthy and safe working conditions as an important element of improving the quality of labor have not yet been created in the country. ... The mortality rate of the working-age population is 4.5 times higher than in the European Union, 2.5 times in developed countries and 1.5 times in developing countries (!). Between 2001 and 2013, the incidence of occupational diseases declined by almost a quarter (From 2.24 to 1.79 per 10,000 workers), which absolutely does not correspond to working conditions. In Russia, the recorded indicators of occupational injuries are lower than in the countries of the European Union, by 7-16 times. At the same time, injuries with a fatal outcome, on the contrary, are higher in the Russian Federation than in developed countries (3-6 times). Inadequate ratio of deaths and non-fatal injuries in comparison with European countries indicates a massive concealment of injuries of mild and moderate severity.

In general, according to experts, in the Russian Federation, due to professionally conditioned diseases, 190,000 people die every year.

Peculiarities of labor payment in hazardous and dangerous industries
In particular, workers employed in jobs with harmful and hazardous working conditions are paid wages that are increased by at least 4% in comparison with the tariff rates (salaries) established for similar types of work with normal working conditions.

The Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia must determine the minimum amount of increase in payment for each class of working conditions (paragraph 2 of Resolution No. 870). But until now this has not been done. Therefore, before accepting the relevant documents, the size of the surcharges can be calculated on the basis of the Model Provision on the Assessment of Working Conditions at Workplaces and the procedure for applying sectoral lists of works on which surcharges may be established to workers for working conditions approved by the Resolution of the USSR State Committee for Statistics and the Secretariat of the AUCCTU of 03.10.86 No. 387 / 22-78 (hereinafter - the Model Regulations). This is stated in the information of the Ministry of Labor of Russia on 01.10.2012. Indirectly, such a conclusion can also be drawn from the definition of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation from 01.11.2012 № APL12-651.

Rostrud's letter of 19.06.2012 No. PG / 4463-6-1 specifies that the regulations of the former USSR can be applied if their provisions are included in collective or labor contracts with employees.

Responsibility for violation of labor protection requirements
Those who are guilty of violation of the requirements of the OT, non-fulfillment of the obligations under the OT stipulated by treaties and agreements, labor contracts (contracts) or interfering with the activities of representatives of state supervision bodies and monitoring compliance with the requirements of the OT, as well as public control bodies, bear disciplinary, administrative, civil- Legal and criminal liability in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.

There are the following types of disciplinary sanctions:

Comment;
Rebuke;
Dismissal on the appropriate grounds.
Administrative penalties for violation of the requirements of the OT include administrative fine and disqualification.

Criminal liability for violation of labor protection requirements provides for the following types of punishment:

fine;
Deprivation of the right to occupy certain positions and engage in certain activities;
Correctional labor;
Deprivation of liberty for a certain period of time.

Rules and instructions for labor protection
Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation of 17.12. 2002, Resolution No. 80 approved the Methodological Recommendations for the development of state regulatory requirements for labor protection. This document establishes the procedure for developing, harmonizing, approving, recording, publishing, disseminating, repealing rules and instructions on labor protection, establishing requirements for their construction, maintenance, design and labeling, the procedure for their verification, revision and provision of enterprises, as well as supervision and Control over their observance.

The rules on labor protection do not exclude the operation of the standards of the Occupational Safety Standards System, construction and sanitary norms and rules, as well as the rules, safety standards approved by the federal supervisors of Russia, and should not conflict with these documents.

Rules for labor protection - a normative act that establishes the requirements for labor protection, mandatory for performance in the design, organization and implementation of production processes, certain types of work, the operation of production equipment, plants, units, machines, apparatus, as well as during transportation, storage, use Raw materials, finished products, substances, waste products, etc.

The rules on labor protection can be of an intersectoral and industrial purpose. Cross-sectoral rules on labor protection are approved by the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation, and industry rules - by the relevant federal executive bodies in coordination with the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation.

The rules on labor protection are approved for a certain period of validity or without limitation of this period.

The instruction on labor protection is a normative act that establishes requirements for labor protection in the performance of work in production premises, on the territory of the enterprise, on construction sites and in other places where these jobs are performed or service duties are performed.

Instructions on labor protection can be typical (sectoral or interbranch) and for employees of enterprises (for certain positions, professions and types of work).

The standard instructions are approved by the federal executive bodies after holding preliminary consultations with the relevant trade union bodies.

As a standard instruction of this industry, a standard instruction of another industry for employees of the relevant professions (types of work) can be used with the consent of the federal executive body that approved the instruction.

Instructions on labor protection can be developed both for employees in positions (director, chief accountant, economist, human resources manager, etc.), individual professions (electric welders, machine operators, locksmiths, electricians, cleaners, laboratory technicians, milkmaids, etc.) and For certain types of work (work at height, installation, commissioning, repair work, testing, etc.). In accordance with judicial practice, it is advisable to organize the development of instructions for posts in accordance with the staff schedule approved by the employer.

A typical instruction for employees should contain the following sections:

General requirements of labor protection (including the official duties of the employee);
Labor protection requirements before commencement of work;
Labor protection requirements during work;
Requirements of labor protection in emergency situations;
Requirements of labor protection at the end of work.
If necessary, additional sections can be included in the instruction.

For the new production facilities to be put into effect, the development of temporary instructions for workers is allowed. Temporary instructions should ensure the safe conduct of technological processes and the safe operation of equipment.

Instructions for employees of all positions are approved by the head of the enterprise after agreement with the relevant trade union body (or other elected body) and the labor protection service, and, if necessary, with other interested services and officials at the discretion of the labor protection service.

Instructions can be issued to employees on hand with a receipt in a personal instruction card for study during initial briefing, or posted on workplaces or sites, or stored elsewhere accessible to employees.

Learning instructions for employees is provided by the employer. The requirements of the instructions are mandatory for employees. Failure to comply with these requirements should be considered as a violation of labor discipline.

Organization of work with personnel on labor protection
Work with personnel on labor protection is one of the main directions of industrial activity, ensuring safety, reliability and efficiency of the enterprise, and is aimed at solving the following main tasks:

Ensuring the compliance of qualifications of persons employed, the requirements, characteristics and conditions of production;
Formation of the necessary knowledge and skills of the employee before admission to independent work, including special ones, necessary to allow the employee to service the equipment and / or perform work under the control of state supervision bodies;
Preservation of necessary knowledge and skills, development of production skills in the process of labor activity;
Improvement of knowledge and skills in changing production conditions;
Constant and systematic control of the professional knowledge and skills of the employee in the course of his work;
The study and application of advanced safe methods of production, the education of the staff of the responsibility for compliance with rules, regulations and instructions for labor protection.

The impact of alcohol use on injuries and occupational diseases

Ethyl alcohol has a narcotic effect on the central nervous system, which affects the safety of work (both in Russia and in other countries). The use of even small amounts of alcohol disrupts the coordination of movements, the speed of visual and motor reactions, negatively affects thinking. With severe intoxication, the real perception of the external world is violated, the worker becomes incapable of consciously managing his actions.

Significant use of alcohol in the Russian Federation, caused by various causes, increases the contribution of this cause to injuries, occupational morbidity, accidents, etc.

With the aim of preventing injuries and occupational diseases, the state allowed the employer to compensate a part of the expenses incurred by him in improving his work, due to his deductions to the Social Insurance Fund (up to 20%). According to the Fund, part of the funds received by employers in this support is spent on the purchase of alcohol testers - about 11.2 million rubles in 2014.

Special assessment of working conditions FZ-426 of December 28, 2013
The Labor Code of the Russian Federation determined that the Special Evaluation of the Conditions of Work (SOUT) is an assessment of working conditions at workplaces in order to identify harmful and hazardous production factors and to implement measures to bring the working conditions in line with state regulatory requirements for labor protection.

The duty to ensure safe conditions and labor protection, and, as a consequence, the responsibility for the special assessment of working conditions in the workplace, the labor code of the RF is vested in the employer. SOUT is subject to each workplace, it must be conducted at least once every five years from the date of approval of the report on the conduct of a special assessment of working conditions. To organize and conduct a special assessment of working conditions by the employer, a commission is formed, the number of members of which must be odd.

Even if the firm is small and does not presume dangerous conditions that could affect the ability of workers to work, the SOST should not be neglected. Otherwise, starting from January 1, 2015, according to Article 5.27.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation, violation by the employer of the established procedure for carrying out a special assessment of working conditions in the workplace or its failure to conduct leads to a warning or imposing an administrative fine on officials in the amount of 5,000 to 10,000 rubles ; On persons engaged in entrepreneurial activities without the formation of a legal entity - from 5,000 to 10,000 rubles; On legal entities - from 60 000 to 80 000 rubles. And it is also possible to impose a number of other penalties.

In order to start a SWOT, the customer must submit an application to the specialized organization chosen by him. After that, its employees produce the appropriate analysis of workplaces: their organizational and technical condition, trauma safety, investigates the harmful factors of the production environment. It will also reveal the extent to which the working conditions correspond to sanitary standards and norms.

Next, a list of recommendations on bringing labor conditions into the norm established by the legislation should be created.

Conducting a special evaluation requires the employer to provide the organization implementing the SOTP with all the necessary data, as well as relevant documents, and, if necessary, provide explanations on the issues arising in the course of such activities.

The order of implementation of the procedure, its terms, as well as the price, are affected by several factors, such as:

The number of jobs that are subject to WCO,
Sphere of activity of the enterprise,
Its equipment with means of individual protection,
Types of equipment used in production and much more.
The possibility of this law to effectively influence working conditions has been questioned by some specialists. For example, the assumption of the possibility of reducing the hazard class while providing workers with effective PPE was criticized in the article:

There was no serious control over the quality of the certification (the predecessor of the special evaluation), and even for the very conduct of it. From 01.09.2008 until 01.01.2013 2% of economic entities reported on the certification.
All types of harmful and dangerous production factors are not covered. In a number of cases, attesting organizations generally do not measure anything, and for a moderate fee issue documents on acceptable working conditions - without going to the company.
The quality of the training of experts may not be sufficient. The attestation of experts consists in answering questions, and the availability of measurement skills is not checked.
Workers should use effective PPE, but it is not possible to evaluate their effectiveness at workplaces in real use. Reducing the class of harmfulness when issuing "effective" PPE contradicts the basic principle of labor protection, which requires providing workers primarily with effective means of collective protection.
The authors proposed to abolish Articles 6 and 7 of Law 426-FZ, and instruct the qualified scientific research institute to develop lists of harmful factors for their identification for different types of production, work technologies and materials used.

Preference for the use of PPE was criticized by the authors.

... Collective protection (VHC) is given very little attention in comparison with PPE. ... from the federal law it follows that if the employer has applied effective PPE, then the class (subclass) of working conditions for an employee can be reduced by one step. The question arises: why not reduce the class (subclass) of working conditions, if the employer will use modern and effective VHCs?

A similar opinion was expressed by the authors: there is no scientific justification for the fact that PPE improves working conditions; PPE can not ensure 100% reliability of its operation; It is not specified what degree of wear (affecting the protective properties) is permissible when the "use before wear" requirement is met; The significant difference in the effectiveness of PPE respiratory organs in laboratory conditions (for example, in the case of certification) and in practice is not taken into account; There are no requirements for the selection of adequate RPE and the appropriate training of specialists - so that the formal fulfillment of the requirements of the industry "Model standards for the issuance of overalls, special footwear and other PPE ..." may lead to the use of deliberately insufficiently reliable PPE; Not solved the problem of timely replacement of gas filters, etc. Along with this, the PPE's nose creates an increased physiological load on the worker. For example, in RPE - due to pressure on the face, high carbon dioxide and reduced oxygen in the inspired air, resistance to breathing, increased temperature and humidity of the inhaled air blowing the face. The special evaluation procedure does not provide for the account of the effect of overheating when working in insulating suits and suits for protection against the thermal effects of an electric arc. When working in conditions where the air pollution is instantly dangerous and the use of a hose gas mask, the technique of special evaluation does not require providing the worker with an auxiliary self-contained breathing apparatus to safely leave the workplace with a possible violation of the air supply through the hose. Checking the conformity of the mask to the person (to reduce the risk of leakage of unfiltered air through the gaps between them) is not provided.

Special evaluation in practice is not carried out by all employers. For example, at the beginning of April 2015, according to reports submitted to the State Labor Inspectorate (Kemerovo Region), a special assessment was conducted only in 838 organizations (less than 1% of the total number of registered - about 100 thousand legal entities and individual entrepreneurs), and the total number Jobs, where the special price was held (for 2014 and 1 quarter 2015) - slightly exceeded 20 thousand (the population of the region 2.7 million). However, according to the reports received by the regional department of the Social Insurance Fund in 2014, special evaluation was conducted in 195 organizations. These results are similar to the data of Rostrud - attestation was carried out by 2% of organizations for 3 years (2008-2012).

The quality of the performance of the special evaluation (in cases of its holding) does not always correspond to the established requirements, which leads to mass appeals to Rostrud; But carrying out a special evaluation allows the employer to deprive the workers of additional vacations, additional payments, reduced working week and the duration of the shift, which were guaranteed earlier, and its quality may not be high:

... contractual AWP with a corruption component, poor quality of work during the AWP, falsification of reporting documents. To this can be added the poor security of the certifying organizations with instruments, the incompetence of experts, the scam, the use of "dummies", mobile phones instead of devices, a lot of confusion with similar jobs, etc. Unfortunately, all this can take place in the special assessment of working conditions OSH).

The employee of the Department of Conditions and Labor Protection (Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation) noted that when conducting a special evaluation, the most frequently detected violations are the use of unverified instruments; And the absence in the field of accreditation of the testing laboratory (center) of the necessary set of studies (tests) and measurements. It also turned out that some organizations began to conduct a special evaluation even before the entry into force of the methodology for its conduct (08/04/2014).

The study showed that although the law obliges the employer to inform workers of harmful production factors and risks, the practical fulfillment of this duty, even with the results of objective instrumental measurements, may be unsatisfactory: often a blurred responsibility for informing workers (among the administration); Formal familiarization with maps on a special assessment of working conditions (with information on the class of working conditions, etc. - on the signature) does not give information about the risk and negative health consequences when exposed to harmful production factors (due to which employees are not aware of all possible Health effects); They are not introduced to the results of risk assessment and the results of in-depth medical research; The full list of occupational diseases is not associated with the harmful production factors specified in the maps of the special assessment of working conditions. Representatives of the administration of the enterprise, obliged to inform workers, sometimes themselves do not understand the meaning of information in protocols with numerical values ​​of harmful production factors. This is consistent with the data - "in the interests of production", for example, many carcinogens are not recognized as such - even at the official level.

Economic aspects of labor protection
Working conditions, and accordingly, injuries, mortality and occupational diseases, affect not only individuals and their families, society, but also affect the economy - as a separate enterprise, and the region and the country. The positive economic consequences of creating safer and healthier working conditions are: productivity growth; Preservation of labor resources and increase of professional activity of workers; And an increase in the aggregate national product due to the improvement of the first two indicators.

The increase in labor productivity is due to the prevention of premature fatigue, a reduction in the number of microtraumas, a reduction in the number of cases of temporary disability due to injuries, and general and occupational morbidity, as well as a reduction in intra-shift downtime.



 
Дата: Суббота, 25.03.2017, 05:26 | Сообщение # 2
Группа: Модератор

Пол: Мужчина

    
(Continuation to the first message)

The preservation of labor resources is associated with an increase in life expectancy, respectively - an increase in the length of service and professional skills; The use of retirees' labor in suitable jobs for them.

In addition, the costs of benefits and compensation for working in harmful conditions are reduced (reduced working hours, additional leave, higher tariff rates, preferential pensions, free milk delivery and preventive nutrition.) Significant economic consequences include increased staff turnover (search for new employees, Their training and adaptation, the initial period of work with reduced productivity and increased frequency of errors, etc.), caused by unfavorable working conditions.

In the opinion of experts, in Russia the economic levers for encouraging the employer to improve working conditions are inadequate and ineffective, and according to official data of Rospotrebnadzor, the share of jobs with harmful and / or dangerous working conditions is steadily increasing, and in 2014 was ~ 1/3 of all workers Places.

The bodies that manage occupational safety and health
Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation (Ministry of Labor of Russia)
Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation - the link does not work from 2012
The Federal Service for Labor and Employment (Rostrud)
State Labor Inspectorate
Moscow City Center for Occupational Safety and Health
FGBU "VNII Protection and Labor Economics" of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia
The Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision (Rostekhnadzor)
Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare (Rospotrebnadzor)
Ministry of Health and Social Development
Labor protection departments
State Academy of Labor Protection
All-Russian Center for Occupational Safety and Health

Classes of working conditions
Factors

Chemical
Biological
Aerosols of predominantly fibrogenic action
Noise
Infrasound
Ultrasound air
Vibration total
Vibration local
Ionizing radiation
Microclimate
Light environment
The severity of the work process

Tension of the labor process
Each factor is assigned a class (1,2,3,1,3,2,3,3,3,4,4)



 
Форум » Forum in English » Holidays Russia » April 28 - International Labor Day (professional holiday)
Страница 1 из 11
Поиск:



      Рейтинг@Mail.ru

Реклама на Froots     Условия использования     Froots © 2017