||Дата: Понедельник, 27.03.2017, 08:17 | Сообщение # 1|
|May 1 - Holiday of Spring and Labor in Russia (holiday)|
The first of May (Holiday of Labor, Labor Day, Spring and Labor Day, International Workers' Day) is celebrated in many countries and territories of the world on May 1 or the first Monday in May.
In modern Russia May 1 is celebrated as the Holiday of Spring and Labor. The same name is used in Tajikistan. In Ukraine, this day is still celebrated the International Workers' Solidarity Day. In Kazakhstan, the Day of Unity of the people of Kazakhstan is celebrated on this day, and in Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, China, Pakistan and Sri Lanka celebrate Labor Day.
In the United States, a holiday with the same name, Labor Day, is celebrated on the first Monday of September, and in Japan the "Thanksgiving Day" is celebrated on November 23. Labor Day in the United States was first celebrated in New York on September 5, 1882, and the first Monday in September was set as the date of the celebration two years later. Days dedicated to work and working people exist in 142 countries around the world, but not all of them, as already noted, are celebrated on May 1.
In the USSR May Day was a workers' holiday. According to Lenin, workers celebrate this day
His awakening to light and knowledge, his association into one fraternal alliance for the struggle against all oppression, ... for the socialist organization of society.
In today's Russia, the holiday has lost its original political character. According to some media estimates, for most citizens of the country this day is just an excuse for entertainment, an additional day off and the start of the summer-and-garden season.
Trade Union holiday
May Day in its modern form arose in the middle of the 19th century in the labor movement, which put forward, as one of the basic requirements, the introduction of an eight-hour working day. At first, this demand was made by the workers of Australia on April 21, 1856. Since then, this holiday in Australia has become annual. Following the example of the workers of Australia on May 1, 1886, the anarchic organizations of the USA and Canada held a series of rallies and demonstrations. When dispersing such a demonstration in Chicago on May 4, six demonstrators were killed. In the ensuing mass protests against police brutality following the explosion of an unknown bomb, eight policemen were killed and at least 50 wounded, and in the ensuing skirmish, a minimum of four workers were injured (according to some, up to fifty dead and wounded) Several dozen people were injured. On charges of organizing an explosion, eight anarchist workers were sentenced to hanging, three of them, when the chief prosecution witness confessed that he had stipulated all the convicts in general, death was replaced by a sentence of 15 years in hard labor. (Subsequently, it was proved that the witness was telling the truth when Confessed to the caveat, and the charge of this crime was false, since although the bombs were making and preparing for the armed performance, but to the clashes on May 5 and the deaths and injuries that day, none of the convicts was implicated ). One of the executed - Albert Parsons - was the brother of the famous colonel of the army of the South, mistakenly called Jose Marti General, himself a former soldier of the Confederate army, but broke with racist prejudices and married a former slave of Indian-Mexican descent Lucy Parsons. It was in memory of those who were executed, at the suggestion of the American workers who had outlined their strike on May 1, 1890, the Paris Congress of the Second International (July 1889), declared May 1, 1890, the Day of Solidarity of the Workers of the World, and proposed to mark it with demonstrations demanding an 8- Day and other social requirements. As in Australia, the success of the demonstrations led to the fact that the holiday became an annual event.
In 1918, in the RSFSR, this holiday became a state day called the International Day. The name of the holiday was changed in 1972 to the Day of International Workers' Solidarity - May Day.
May Day in the Russian Empire
In the Russian Empire First May, as the day of international solidarity of workers, was first celebrated in Warsaw in 1890 by a strike of 10,000 workers. Since May 1897, the Mayo River began to be of a political nature and was accompanied by mass demonstrations. The May Day demonstrations of workers in St. Petersburg, Tbilisi, Gomel, Kharkov and other cities in 1901 were accompanied for the first time by slogans: "Down with the autocracy!", "Long live the republic!", Clashes with troops (for example, the so-called "Obukhov defense" 1901 of the year).
More than 400,000 workers left the May Day strikes and demonstrations of 1912-1914. In 1917, after the February Revolution, May Day was first celebrated openly: millions of workers took to the streets with slogans "Down with the capitalist ministers", "All power to the Soviets", "Down with the imperialist wars!"
After the October Revolution of 1917, the holiday became official. In the USSR it was originally called the "Day of the International", later it was called "Day of International Workers' Solidarity - May Day" and celebrated on May 1 and 2. May 1 in the Soviet Union was a non-working day from 1918 according to the Code of Labor Law of the RSFSR, May 2 - since 1928 according to the resolution of the Central Executive Committee of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR "On holidays dedicated to the International Day and on special days of rest" of April 23 of that year. May 1, there were demonstrations of workers and military parades (the first May Day parade of the Red Army took place in 1918 at the Khodynka Field). On the second day of the holiday, as a rule, in the whole country there were "Mayhems" - mass celebrations in nature.
In the era of "developed socialism" in the USSR May Day demonstrations began to carry a different semantic load. On the first day of May, the working people of the USSR "express their solidarity with the revolutionary struggle of the working people of the capitalist countries, with the national liberation movement, expressing their determination to give all their strength to the struggle for peace and the building of a communist society."
Organized columns of workers marched along the central streets of cities and towns under marches and music of a political orientation, loudman voices greeted announcers and political slogans, and from the stands, installed usually near the main administrative buildings, the demonstrators were greeted by the leaders of the CPSU and government officials. The translation was conducted by local TV and radio channels. The main demonstration of the country took place annually on the Red Square of Moscow and was broadcast by the central television channels, with the insertion of demonstration personnel in other major cities of the country.
On May 1, 1990, the official May Day demonstration took place for the last time. On May 1, 1991, a rally was held on Red Square organized by the Moscow Federation of Trade Unions and the Association of Free Trade Unions, against price increases (M. Gorbachev, A. Lukyanov, etc. were present on the rostrum of the Mausoleum).
In Russian federation
In 1992, the holiday was renamed the "Holiday of Spring and Labor".
The events of 1993
In 1993, a rally followed by a procession organized by the National Salvation Front, Labor Moscow, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, went into clashes between demonstrators and riot police not far from houses 30 and 37 on Leninsky Prospect.
After the breakthrough by the demonstrators of the cordon, the OMON went into a counter-attack near the house on Leninsky Prospekt. "The demonstrators fiercely fought using the flagstones of the banners." To overcome obstacles, the demonstrators used trucks as rams. One of the rams led to serious injuries to the sergeant OMON Vladimir Tolokneva, who died after four days. The media data on the number of victims varied: the original figure of 150 people soon quadrupled.
Official statistics had a curious feature: the police indicated the total number of victims, on the part of the demonstrators - the number of hospitalized. For this reason, the given data can not be compared with each other. "Rumors about the victims of the rally participants or those who died in the hospital denied Pravda in the May 6 issue."
As the Day of International Workers' Solidarity on May 1, every year, communists, anarchists and other organizations celebrate. These events are accompanied by the advancement of acute social and political slogans ("The Government of Bankrupt - Resigned!", "We Do not Want to Pay for YOUR Crisis!", "Self-Organization, Self-Government, Self-Defense!", Etc.)
The holiday of spring and labor, celebrated as a state holiday, is usually used to hold political actions under its slogans by trade unions, parties and movements of different directions - from the left to the ultra-right: United Russia (together with FITUR and MGER), Fair Russia, CPRF "," Yabloko "," Solidarity ", LDPR and Autonomous Action.
The slogans of official events organized by the authorities are far from the historical roots of May Day demonstrations: "Putin's plan is a Victory plan!", "Bonuses for pensioners", "Three kids in the family is the norm!"
Igor Trunov, head of the Moscow branch of the Just Cause Party, expressed a more radical attitude towards the holiday in 2009: "If I were frank, I did not really want to hold it on May 1 because I do not agree with the workers of Chicago, where this holiday came from" .
On May 1, 2013 several hundred thousand workers came to the streets of Russian cities. In Moscow, more than 100,000 people took part in the May Day demonstration.
In 2016, the celebration of Easter and the First Day overlapped, which led to the rejection of May Day events in selected regions.
From the first of May is closely related the emergence of the maids, which were a picnic. This tradition of celebrating in nature was common in the USSR. In pre-revolutionary Russia, Mayavka was an illegal meeting of workers, arranged outside the city on the day of May 1. Mayevka was persecuted by the tsarist police.
May 1st in other countries
May 1 is officially celebrated as a national holiday Austria, Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Hungary, Venezuela, Vietnam, Guatemala, Germany, Greece, Honduras, Hong Kong, Dominican China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Jordan, Iraq, Iceland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mauritius, Malaysia, Malta, Morocco, Mexico, Moldova, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, the Republic of Haiti, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Macedonia, the Russian Federation, Romania, Serbia, Singapore, Syria, Slovakia, Slovenia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, Philippines, Finland, France, Croatia, Chile, Montenegro, Czech Republic, Sweden, Sri Lanka, Ecuador, Estonia, South Africa, South Korea.
With the coming to power of Adolf Hitler, this day was given official status in 1933. It was called "The Day of National Labor".
May Day in Berlin is known for fierce clashes between members of radical leftist groups and the police.
The first celebration of the May Day in India was organized in the Madras by the Labor Party on May 1, 1923. It was also the first time that a red flag was raised in India. In the same year, a resolution was adopted that the government should declare May 1 a holiday.
Residents of this country on May 1 celebrate the Day of Unity of the People of Kazakhstan. The celebration of Labor Day has been canceled since 1996.
In November 2016, the Tajik parliament was ruled out on May 1 from the list of holiday holidays.
In Finland, May Day (Vappu) is a spring carnival of students.
In Helsinki, the celebration begins on April 30, when at six o'clock in the evening on a statue of the nymph Havis Amanda, standing in the Market Square of the capital, students put on a white cap - headgear of entrants. At this point, all present also put on their caps and open bottles with champagne. A white entrant's cap is received by those who graduated from the Lyceum and passed the final examination. In other major cities in Finland there are ceremonies associated with monuments.